Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-csfzr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-23T05:51:01.465Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

19 - Infant Object Manipulation and Play

from Part IV - Action

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 September 2020

Jeffrey J. Lockman
Tulane University, Louisiana
Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda
New York University
Get access


Natural and manufactured objects saturate human culture. Infants need not do much or go far to find objects of different shapes, textures, sizes, and functions throughout their environments. And, as they manipulate and play with objects, they learn quite a lot along the way. From the time they can swipe and grab, infants spend most of their awake hours exploring objects – moving seamlessly from object to object in short bursts of activity distributed over time. These bouts of object interaction allow infants to practice and refine manual skills, learn about object features and functions, and test the fit between body and environment. Object interactions also allow infants to extend the limits of reality. Infants can pretend that objects exist when they do not, use objects to stand for other objects, and generate unique ways to use objects beyond their intended design. Indeed, to fully engage human artifact culture, infants must become proficient at using objects in twin planes of action – the real and the imagined.

The Cambridge Handbook of Infant Development
Brain, Behavior, and Cultural Context
, pp. 520 - 548
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alfieri, L., Brooks, P. J., Aldrich, N. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(1), 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, T. M., Davis, E. F., & Needham, A. (2007). Learning about tools in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 352368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barrett, T. M., & Needham, A. (2008). Developmental differences in infants’ use of an object’s shape to grasp it securely. Developmental Psychobiology, 50(1), 97106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bassok, D., Latham, S., & Rorem, A. (2016). Is kindergarten the new first grade? AERA Open, 1(4), 131.Google Scholar
Belsky, J., & Most, R. K. (1981). From exploration to play: A cross-sectional study of infant free play behavior. Developmental Psychology, 17(5), 630639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergen, D., Hutchinson, K., Nolan, J. T., & Weber, D. (2009). Effects of infant–parent play with a technology-enhanced toy: Affordance-related actions and communicative interactions. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 24(1), 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berthier, N. E., & Carrico, R. L. (2010). Visual information and object size in infant reaching. Infant Behavior and Development, 33(4), 555566.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2015). Vygotskian and post-Vygotskian views on children’s play. American Journal of Play, 7(3), 371388.Google Scholar
Bornstein, M. H., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (1995). Parent–child symbolic play: Three theories in search of an effect. Developmental Review, 15(4), 382400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bornstein, M. H., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2006). Infants at play: Development, partners and functions. In Slater, A. & Lewis, M. (Eds.), Introduction to Infant Development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bornstein, M. H., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Hahn, C. S., & Haynes, O. M. (2008). Maternal responsiveness to young children at three ages: Longitudinal analysis of a multidimensional, modular, and specific parenting construct. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 867874.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bourgeois, K. S., Khawar, A. W., Neal, S. A., & Lockman, J. J. (2005). Infant manual exploration of objects, surfaces, and their interrelations. Infancy, 8(3), 233252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brand, R. J., Baldwin, D. A., & Ashburn, L. A. (2002). Evidence for “motionese”: Modifications in mothers’ infant-directed action. Developmental Science, 5(1), 7283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bretherton, I. (1984). Representing the social world in symbolic play: Reality and fantasy. In Bretherton, I. (Ed.), Symbolic play: The development of social understanding (pp. 341). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bretherton, I., O’Connell, B., Shore, C., & Bates, E. (1984). The effect of contextual variation on symbolic play development from 20 to 28 months. In Bretherton, I. (Ed.), Symbolic play: The development of social understanding (pp. 271298). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruner, J. (1978). The role of dialogue in language acquisition. In Sinclair, A., Jarville, R. J., & Levelt, W. J. M. (Eds.), The child’s conception of language (pp. 241256). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Bushnell, E. W., & Boudreau, J. P. (1993). Motor development and the mind: The potential role of motor abilities as a determinant of aspects of perceptual development. Child Development, 64(4), 10051021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bushnell, E. W., (1998). Exploring and exploiting objects with the hands during infancy. In Connolly, K. (Ed.), The psychobiology of the hand (pp. 144161). Cambridge, UK: Mac Keith Press.Google Scholar
Campbell, S. B., Mahoney, A. S., Northrup, J., Moore, E. L., Leezenbaum, N. B., & Brownell, C. A. (2018). Developmental changes in pretend play from 22 to 34months in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(3), 639654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casasola, M. (2017). Above and beyond objects: The development of infants’ spatial concepts. In Benson, J. B. (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 54, pp. 87121). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic.Google Scholar
Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., & Garrison, M. M. (2007). Effect of block play on language acquisition and attention in toddlers: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 967971.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clearfield, M. W. (2019). Play for success: An intervention to boost object exploration in infants from low-income households. Infant Behavior and Development, 55, 112122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clearfield, M. W., Bailey, L. S., Jenne, H. K., Stanger, S. B., & Tacke, N. (2014). Socioeconomic status affects oral and manual exploration across the first year. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35(1), 6369.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbetta, D., Thelen, E., & Johnson, K. (2000). Motor constraints on the development of perception–action matching in infant reaching. Infant Behavior and Development, 23(3–4), 351374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damast, A. M., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Bornstein, M. H. (1996). Mother–child play: Sequential interactions and the relation between maternal beliefs and behaviors. Child Development, 67(4), 17521766.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeLoache, J. S. (2004). Becoming symbol-minded. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(2), 6670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dore, R. A., Zosh, J. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2017). Plugging into word learning: the role of electronic toys and digital media in language development. In Blumberg, F. C. & Brooks, P. J. (Eds.), Cognitive development in digital contexts (pp. 7591). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duncker, K. (1945). On problem-solving. Psychological Monographs, 58(5), i113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, C. P., & Whiting, B. B. (1993). Mother, older sibling, and me”: The overlapping roles of caregivers and companions in the social world of two- to three-year-olds in Ngeca, Kenya. In MacDonald, K. (Ed.), Parent–child play: Descriptions and implications (pp. 305329). Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Fagard, J., & Jacquet, A. Y. (1996). Changes in reaching and grasping objects of different sizes between 7 and 13 months of age. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14(1), 6578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farver, J. M., & Howes, C. (1993). Cultural differences in American and Mexican mother–child pretend play. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982–), 39(3), 344358.Google Scholar
Farver, J. A., & Wimbarti, S. (1995). Indonesian children’s play with their mothers and older siblings. Child Development, 66(5), 14931503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fein, G. G. (1981). Pretend play in childhood: An integrative review. Child Development, 52(4), 10951118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fenson, L., & Ramsay, D. S. (1980). Decentration and integration of the child’s play in the second year. Child Development, 51(1), 171178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Field, T. (1983). High-risk infants “have less fun” during early interactions. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 3(1), 7787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fiese, B. H. (1990). Playful relationships: A contextual analysis of mother–toddler interaction and symbolic play. Child Development, 61(5), 16481656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, K. R., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Newcombe, N., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2013). Taking shape: Supporting preschoolers’ acquisition of geometric knowledge through guided play. Child Development, 84(6), 18721878.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fogle, L. M., & Mendez, J. L. (2006). Assessing the play beliefs of African American mothers with preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(4), 507518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fontenelle, S. A., Kahrs, B. A., Neal, S. A., Newton, A. T., & Lockman, J. J. (2007). Infant manual exploration of composite substrates. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 98(3), 153167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garvey, C. (1990). Play (Vol. 27). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Gaskins, S., Haight, W., & Lancy, D. F. (2007). The cultural construction of play. In Göncü, A. & Gaskins, S. (Eds.), Play and development: Evolutionary, sociocultural, and functional perspectives (pp. 179202). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Gesell, A., & Thompson, H.(1934). Infant behavior: Its genesis and growth. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, E. J. (1982). The concept of affordances in development: The renascence of functionalism. In Collins, W. A. (Ed.), The concept of development: The Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 15, pp. 5581). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Gibson, E. J., & Pick, A. D. (2000). An ecological approach to perceptual learning and development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Gillespie, A., & Zittoun, T. (2010). Using resources: Conceptualizing the mediation and reflective use of tools and signs. Culture & Psychology, 16(1), 3762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, D., Li, Q., Lockman, J. J., & Gredebäck, G. (2016). Culture influences action understanding in infancy: Prediction of actions performed with chopsticks and spoons in Chinese and Swedish infants. Child Development, 87(3), 736746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haight, W. L., & Miller, P. J. (1992). The development of everyday pretend play: A longitudinal study of mothers’ participation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982–), 38, 331349.Google Scholar
Haight, W. L., (1993). Pretending at home: Early development in a sociocultural context. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Heathcock, J. C., & Lockman, J. J. (2019). Infant and child development: Innovations and foundations for rehabilitation. Physical Therapy, 99, 643646. ScholarPubMed
Hoff, E. (2013). Language development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google ScholarPubMed
Hopkins, E. J., Smith, E. D., Weisberg, D. S., & Lillard, A. S. (2016). The development of substitute object pretense: The differential importance of form and function. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17(2), 197220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hrdy, S. B. (2009). The woman that never evolved. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Jeannerod, M. (1988). The neural and behavioural organization of goal-directed movements. New York, NY: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Jung, W. P., Kahrs, B. A., & Lockman, J. J. (2015). Manual action, fitting, and spatial planning: Relating objects by young children. Cognition, 134, 128139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jung, W. P., Kahrs, B. A., (2018). Fitting handled objects into apertures by 17-to 36-month-old children: The dynamics of spatial coordination. Developmental Psychology, 54(2), 228239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kahrs, B. A., Jung, W. P., & Lockman, J. J. (2013). Motor origins of tool use. Child Development, 84(3), 810816.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kahrs, B. A., Jung, W. P., (2014). When does tool use become distinctively human? Hammering in young children. Child Development, 85(3), 10501061.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaplan, B., Rachwani, J., Sida, A., Vasa, A., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Adolph, K. E. (2018, June). Perceptual-motor exploration and problem solving: Learning to implement the designed action of Duplo bricks. Paper presented at the International Congress on Infant Studies, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
Karasik, L. B., Schneider, J. L., Kuchirko, Y. A. & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2018, June). Not so WEIRD object play in Tajikistan. Paper presented at the International Congress on Infant Studies, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
Koterba, E. A., & Iverson, J. M. (2009). Investigating motionese: The effect of infant-directed action on infants’ attention and object exploration. Infant Behavior and Development, 32(4), 437444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuypers, H. G. (1962). Corticospinal connections: postnatal development in the rhesus monkey. Science, 138(3541), 678680.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LaForett, D. R., & Mendez, J. L. (2017). Children’s engagement in play at home: A parent’s role in supporting play opportunities during early childhood. Early Child Development and Care, 187(5–6), 910923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence, D. G., & Hopkins, D. A. (1972). Developmental aspects of pyramidal motor control in the rhesus monkey. Brain Research, 40, 117118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lederman, S. J., & Klatzky, R. L. (1987). Hand movements: A window into haptic object recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 342368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretense and representation: The origins of “theory of mind.” Psychological Review, 94(4), 412426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Libertus, K., Joh, A. S., & Needham, A. W. (2016). Motor training at 3 months affects object exploration 12 months later. Developmental Science, 19(6), 10581066.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lillard, A. S. (1993). Pretend play skills and the child’s theory of mind. Child Development, 64(2), 348371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lillard, A. S. (2007). Pretend play in toddlers. In Brownell, C. & Kopp, C. (Eds.), Socioemotional development in the toddler years: Transitions and transformations (pp. 149176). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Lillard, A. S. (2011). Mother–child fantasy play. In Nathan, P. & Pelligrini, A. D. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the development of play (pp. 284295). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lillard, A. S. (2013). Playful learning and Montessori education. NAMTA Journal, 38(2), 137174.Google Scholar
Lillard, A. S. (2015). The development of play volume. In Lerner, R. M. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 425468). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Lillard, A., Nishida, T., Massaro, D., Vaish, A., Ma, L., & McRoberts, G. (2007). Signs of pretense across age and scenario. Infancy, 11(1), 130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Little, E. E., Carver, L. J., & Legare, C. H. (2016). Cultural variation in triadic infant–caregiver object exploration. Child Development, 87(4), 11301145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lobo, M., Hall, M. L., Greenspan, B., Rohloff, P., Prosser, L. A., & Smith, B. A. (2019). Wearables for pediatric rehabilitation: How to optimally design and use products to meet the needs of users. Physical Therapy, 99, 647657. ScholarPubMed
Lockman, J. J. (2000). A perception–action perspective on tool use development. Child development, 71(1), 137144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lockman, J. J., & Ashmead, D. H. (1983). Asynchronies in the development of manual behavior. Advances in Infancy Research, 2, 113136.Google Scholar
Lockman, J. J., Ashmead, D. H., & Bushnell, E. W. (1984). The development of anticipatory hand orientation during infancy. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37(1), 176186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lockman, J. J., & Kahrs, B. A. (2017). New insights into the development of human tool use. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(4), 330334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lockman, J. J., & McHale, J. P. (1989). Object manipulation in infancy. In Lockman, J. J. & McHale, J. P. (Eds.), Action in social context (pp. 129167). New York, NY: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, J. C. (2005). The corticospinal system: From development to motor control. Neuroscientist, 11, 161173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marzke, M. W. (1997). Precision grips, hand morphology, and tools. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 102(1), 91110.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarty, M. E., Clifton, R. K., & Collard, R. R. (2001). The beginnings of tool use by infants and toddlers. Infancy, 2(2), 233256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCune, L. (1995). A normative study of representational play in the transition to language. Developmental Psychology, 31(2), 198206. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.31.2.198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCune-Nicolich, L. (1981). Toward symbolic functioning: Structure of early pretend games and potential parallels with language. Child Development, 52, 785797. doi:10.2307/1129078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milner, A. D., & Goodale, M. A. (1995). The visual brain in action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Milner, A. D., (2008). Two visual systems re-viewed. Neuropsychologia, 46(3), 774785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Molina, M., & Jouen, F. (1998). Modulation of the palmar grasp behavior in neonates according to texture property. Infant Behavior and Development, 21(4), 659666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgante, J. D., & Keen, R. (2008). Vision and action: The effect of visual feedback on infants’ exploratory behaviors. Infant Behavior and Development, 31(4), 729733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, B., Croker, S., Zimmerman, C., Gill, D., & Romig, C. (2013). Gaming science: The “Gamification” of scientific thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Napier, J. (1962). The evolution of the hand. Scientific American, 207(6), 5665.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Needham, A., Barrett, T., & Peterman, K. (2002). A pick-me-up for infants’ exploratory skills: Early simulated experiences reaching for objects using “sticky mittens” enhances young infants’ object exploration skills. Infant Behavior and Development, 25(3), 279295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Connell, B., & Bretherton, I. (1984). Toddler’s play, alone and with mother: The role of maternal guidance. In Bretherton, I. (Ed.), Symbolic play: The development of social understanding (pp. 337368). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orr, E., & Geva, R. (2015). Symbolic play and language development. Infant Behavior and Development, 38, 147161.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Palmer, C. F. (1989). The discriminating nature of infants’ exploratory actions. Developmental Psychology, 25(6), 885893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parish-Morris, J., Mahajan, N., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., & Collins, M. F. (2013). Once upon a time: Parent–child dialogue and storybook reading in the electronic era. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7(3), 200211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piaget, J. (1945). Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child (M. Cook, Trans.). New York, NY: Basic Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, T. G. (2000). Play and exploration in children and animals. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Quinn, S., Donnelly, S., & Kidd, E. (2018). The relationship between symbolic play and language acquisition: A meta-analytic review. Developmental Review, 49, 121135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinn, S., & Kidd, E. (2018). Symbolic play promotes non-verbal communicative exchanges in infant–caregiver dyads. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 37(1), 3350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachwani, J., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Lockman, J. J., Karasik, L. B., & Adolph, K. E. (2020). Learning the designed actions of everyday objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 149(1), 6778. ScholarPubMed
Rips, L. J., & Hespos, S. J. (2015). Divisions of the physical world: Concepts of objects and substances. Psychological Bulletin, 141(4), 786811.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rochat, P. (1989). Object manipulation and exploration in 2- to 5-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 25(6), 871884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogoff, B., Mistry, J., Göncü, A., & Mosier, C. (1991). Cultural variation in the role relations of toddlers and their families. In Bornstein, M. (Ed.), Cultural approaches to parenting (pp. 173183). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Rogoff, B., Mistry, J., Göncü, A., Mosier, C., Chavajay, P., & Heath, S. B. (1993). Guided participation in cultural activity by toddlers and caregivers. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, i179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruff, H. A. (1984). Infants’ manipulative exploration of objects: Effects of age and object characteristics. Developmental Psychology, 20(1), 920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scarr-Salapatek, S., & Williams, M. L. (1973). The effects of early stimulation on low-birth-weight infants. Child Development, 94101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schum, N., Jovanovic, B., & Schwarzer, G. (2011). Ten- and twelve-month-olds’ visual anticipation of orientation and size during grasping. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109(2), 218231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slade, A. (1987). Quality of attachment and early symbolic play. Developmental Psychology, 23(1), 7885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, L. B., Street, S., Jones, S. S., & James, K. H. (2014). Using the axis of elongation to align shapes: Developmental changes between 18 and 24 months of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 123, 1535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Street, S. Y., James, K. H, Jones, S. S., & Smith, L. B. (2011). Vision for action in toddlers: The posting task. Child Development, 82, 20832094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Striano, T., & Bushnell, E. W. (2005). Haptic perception of material properties by 3-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 28(3), 266289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sutherland, S. L., & Friedman, O. (2013). Just pretending can be really learning: Children use pretend play as a source for acquiring generic knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 49(9), 16601668.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tacke, N. F., Bailey, L. S., & Clearfield, M. W. (2015). Socio-economic status (SES) affects infants’ selective exploration. Infant and Child Development, 24(6), 571586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Bornstein, M. H. (1991). Individual variation, correspondence, stability, and change in mother and toddler play. Infant Behavior and Development, 14(2), 143162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Bornstein, M. H. (1993). Play and its relations to other mental functions in the child. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 1993(59), 1728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1996). Variation in children’s exploratory, nonsymbolic, and symbolic play: An explanatory multidimensional framework. In Rovee-Collier, C. & Lipsitt, L. P. (Ed.), Advances in infancy research (pp. 3778). Westport, CT: Ablex.Google Scholar
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Kuchirko, Y., & Tafuro, L. (2013). From action to interaction: Infant object exploration and mothers’ contingent responsiveness. IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 5(3), 202209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Schatz, J. (2019). Learning language in the context of play. In Horst, J., von Koss, J., & Torkildsen, K. (Eds.) International handbook of language development (pp. 442461). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Uccelli, P., Hemphill, L., Pan, B. A., & Snow, C. (2006). Conversing with toddlers about the nonpresent: Precursors to narrative development in two genres. In Balter, L. & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues (pp. 215237). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Ungerleider, L. G., & Mishkin, M. (1982). Two cortical visual systems. Analysis of visual behavior. In Ingle, D. J. Goodale, M. A., & Mansfield, R. J. W. (Eds.), Analysis of visual behavior (pp. 549586). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
von Hofsten, C. (1983). Catching skills in infancy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 9(1), 7585.Google ScholarPubMed
von Hofsten, C. (2007). Action in development. Developmental Science, 10(1), 5460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
von Hofsten, C., & Fazel-Zandy, S. (1984). Development of visually guided hand orientation in reaching. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38(2), 208219.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
von Hofsten, C., & Rönnqvist, L. (1988). Preparation for grasping an object: A developmental study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14(4), 610621.Google ScholarPubMed
Vygotsky, L. S. (1967). Play and its role in the mental development of the child. Soviet Psychology, 5(3), 618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weisberg, D. S., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., Kittredge, A. K., & Klahr, D. (2016). Guided play: Principles and practices. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(3), 177182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weisner, T. S. (1987). Socialization for parenthood in sibling caretaking societies. In Altmann, J. (Ed.), Parenting across the life span: Biosocial dimensions (pp. 237270). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Welniarz, Q., Delsart, I., & Roze, E. (2017). The corticospinal tract: Evolution, development, and human disorders. Developmental Neurobiology, 77, 810829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werner, H., & Kaplan, B. (1963). Symbol formation. Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
Witherington, D. (2005). The development of prospective grasping control between 5 and 7 months. Infancy, 7, 143161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfe, S. W., Crisco, J. J., Orr, C. M., & Marzke, M. W. (2006). The dart-throwing motion of the wrist: is it unique to humans? Journal of Hand Surgery, 31(9), 14291437.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wooldridge, M. B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother–toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu, C., & Smith, L. (2016). The social origins of sustained attention in 1-year-old human infants. Current Biology, 26(9), R357R359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zosh, J. M., Verdine, B. N., Filipowicz, A., Golinkoff, R. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Newcombe, N. S. (2015). Talking shape: Parental language with electronic versus traditional shape sorters. Mind, Brain, and Education, 9(3), 136144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats