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3 - Displacing the Dominance of the Three-Step Test: The Role of Global Mandatory Fair Use

from Part II - Internationalizing Copyright Exceptions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 January 2021

Shyamkrishna Balganesh
Affiliation:
University of Pennsylvania Law School
Ng-Loy Wee Loon
Affiliation:
National University of Singapore School of Law
Haochen Sun
Affiliation:
University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law
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Summary

Article 10(1) of the Berne Convention mandates a quotation exception that is broad in scope, one that is not limited by work, nor type of act, nor by purpose, and is only subject to the conditions in Article 10, namely, the work has been lawfully made available to the public, attribution, fair practice, and proportionality. We call this “global mandatory fair use.” This overlooked norm in international copyright law is unaffected by and distinct from the three-step test and, as such, potentially dislodges its dominance. In turn, this creates different possibilities for how to conceive of and assess copyright exceptions at the national level. To substantiate our argument, this chapter is structured in three parts.outlines our underpinning contention, namely, that Article 10(1) creates a global mandatory “fair use” type obligation.explains why this obligation is unaffected by the three-step test in international copyright law. Finally, in , we draw out the differences between Article 10(1) and the three-step test and illustrate the potential relevance of this for national law using the specific case of US “fair use.”

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

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