Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-dfw9g Total loading time: 1.068 Render date: 2022-08-08T20:00:15.517Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

23 - A Public Health Approach to Delinquency and Incarceration

A Case Study

from Part III - Community Psychology in Action

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 December 2021

Caroline S. Clauss-Ehlers
Affiliation:
Long Island University, New York
Get access

Summary

We explore the prevalence of delinquency and incarceration from a global, contextual perspective and review risk factors identified in the literature, as well as prevention efforts from a public health approach. As the correlation between disadvantage and delinquency is well-established, we propose that formulating this issue as one of public health provides the opportunity for both systemic and individual intervention. The relationship between disadvantage, delinquency, and adult imprisonment will be shown to be a global trend. As a public health issue, the opportunity for both systemic change and earlier individual prevention strategies arises. The absence of these community-based diversionary approaches places pressure on correctional facilities to provide these default community services. Given this, the worldwide trend for recidivism is the outcome of a predictable cyclical failure to meet this community public health need. As such, communities must recognize that current prison service designs fulfill this public health function. Their function is to separate offenders from the community, but remain connected to the community. The tragedy of the incarcerated individuals' experience is shown with a US case example demonstrating the manifestation of this complexity within an overburdened system. Implications for interdisciplinary efforts between public health and community psychology are discussed.

Type
Chapter
Information
The Cambridge Handbook of Community Psychology
Interdisciplinary and Contextual Perspectives
, pp. 468 - 494
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aaron, L., & Dallaire, D. H. (2010). Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: Effects on family dynamics and children’s delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(12), 14711484. doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9458-0CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adams, L. E., Yasmin, S., Briggs, G., et al. (2015). Alcohol production, prevention strategies, and inmate knowledge about the risk for botulism from pruno consumption in a correctional facility – Arizona, 2013. Journal of Correctional Healthcare, 21(4), 335342. doi.org/10.1177/1078345815599763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Administrative Office of the US Courts. (n.d.). Overview of probation and supervised release conditions. www.uscourts.gov/services-forms/overview-probation-supervised-release-conditionsGoogle Scholar
Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., Pollard, J. A., Catalano, R. F., & Baglioni, A. J. Jr. (2002). Measuring risk and protective factors for substance use, delinquency, and other adolescent problem behaviors: The Communities That Care Youth Survey. Evaluation Review, 26(6), 575601. doi.org/10.1177/0193841X0202600601Google ScholarPubMed
Ax, R. K. (2003). A viable future for correctional mental health care. In Fagan, T. J. & Ax, R. K. (Eds.), Correctional mental health handbook (pp. 303327). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkan, S. E. (2001). Criminology: A sociological understanding (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Belknap, J., & Holsinger, K. (2006). The gendered nature of risk factors for delinquency. Feminist Criminology, 1(1), 4871. doi.org/10.1177/1557085105282897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blaskey, S. (2018, August 22). This drug is turning Florida inmates into “zombies.” It’s fueling a record death toll. Miami Herald. www.miamiherald.com/news/special-reports/florida-prisons/article215642855.htmlGoogle Scholar
Borg, I., Hermann, D., & Bilsky, W. (2017). A closer look at personal values and delinquency. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 171178. doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borum, R., & Verhaagen, D. (2006). Assessing and managing violence risk in juveniles. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., Balka, E. B., & Cohen, P. (1997). Drug use and delinquency: Shared and unshared risk factors in African American and Puerto Rican adolescents. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 158(1), 2539. doi.org/10.1080/00221329709596650CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bushnell, A. (2017). Australia’s criminal justice costs: An international comparison. Institute of Public Affairs. https://ipa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/IPA-Report-Australian-Criminal-Justice_Costs-An-International-Comparison.pdfGoogle Scholar
Case, A. D. (2017). A critical-positive youth development model for intervening with minority youth at risk for delinquency. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(5), 510519. doi.org/10.1037/ort0000273CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007, November 30). Effects on violence of laws and policies facilitating the transfer of youth from the juvenile to the adult justice system: A report on the recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56(RR-9), 111. www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5609.pdfGoogle Scholar
Cheng, T. C., & Li, Q. (2017). Adolescent delinquency in child welfare system: A multiple disadvantage model. Children and Youth Services Review, 73, 205212. doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.12.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Claborn, D., & McCarthy, B. (2011). Incarceration and isolation of the innocent for reasons of public health. The Journal of the Institute of Justice & International Studies, 11, 7586.Google Scholar
Clinkinbeard, S. S., Simi, P., Evans, M. K., & Anderson, A. L. (2011). Sleep and delinquency: Does the amount of sleep matter? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(7), 916930. doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9594-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Commonwealth of Australia, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2019). Closing the gap: Report 2019. www.niaa.gov.au/sites/default/files/reports/closing-the-gap-2019/sites/default/files/ctg-report-20193872.pdfGoogle Scholar
Couloute, L. (2018, October). Getting back on course: Educational exclusion and attainment among formerly incarcerated people [Press release]. www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/education.htmlGoogle Scholar
Dawes, G., Davidson, A., Walden, E., & Isaacs, S. (2017). Keeping on country: Understanding and responding to crime and recidivism in remote Indigenous communities. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 306315. doi.org/10.1111/ap.12296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, A., Jackson, D., & Nyamathi, A. (2012). Children of incarcerated parents: Insights to addressing a growing public health concern in Australia. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(12), 24332441. doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Defoe, I. N., Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2013). Disentangling the relationship between delinquency and hyperactivity, low achievement, depression, and low socioeconomic status: Analysis of repeated longitudinal data. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(2), 100107. doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.12.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dembo, R., Briones-Robinson, R., Barrett, K., et al. (2011). Mental health, substance use, and delinquency among truant youth in a brief intervention project: A longitudinal study. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 21(3), 176192. doi.org/10.1177/1063426611421006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
deVuono-Powell, S., Schweidler, C., Walters, A., & Zohrabi, A. (2015). Who pays? The true cost of incarceration on families. Oakland, CA: Ella Baker Center, Forward Together, Research Action Design. http://whopaysreport.org/Google Scholar
Duffin, E. (2019). Incarceration rates in OECD countries as of 2019. Statista. www.statista.com/statistics/300986/incarcreation-rates-in-oecd-countries/Google Scholar
Dumont, D. M., Brockmann, B., Dickman, S., Alexander, N., & Rich, J. D. (2012). Public health and the epidemic of incarceration. Annual Review of Public Health, 33, 325329. doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031811-124614CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dumont, D. M., Wildeman, C., Lee, H., et al. (2014). Incarceration, maternal hardship, and perinatal health behaviors. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(9), 21792187. doi.org/10.1007/s10995-014-1466-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fazel, S., Yoon, I. A., & Hayes, A. J. (2017). Substance use disorders in prisoners: An updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women. Addiction, 112(10), 17251739. doi.org/10.1111/add.13877CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ford, M. (2015, June 8). America’s largest mental hospital is a jail. The Atlantic. www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/06/americas-largest-mental-hospital-is-a-jail/395012/Google Scholar
Garces, E., Thomas, D., & Currie, J. (2000). Longer term effects of Head Start. (National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER] Working Paper No. 8054). www.nber.org/papers/w8054.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goetting, A. (1983, August). The elderly in prison: Issues and perspectives. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Detroit, MI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardie-Williams, K. (2018, May 4). How can we help children become more resilient? www.goodtherapy.org/blog/how-can-we-help-children-become-more-resilient-0504184Google Scholar
Hogenboom, M. (2018, April 16). Locked up and vulnerable: When prison makes things worse. BBC. www.bbc.com/future/article/20180411-locked-up-and-vulnerable-when-prison-makes-things-worseGoogle Scholar
Hyle, K. (2018, April 30). Federal Register notice: Annual determination of average cost of incarceration (FR Document No. 2018-09062). www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/04/30/2018-09062/annual-determination-of-average-cost-of-incarcerationGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, J. M. (2005). Explaining the race/ethnicity–violence relationship: Neighborhood context and social psychological processes. Justice Quarterly, 22(2), 244251. doi.org/10.1080/07418820500088986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirkland, T. (2018, September 18). Synthetic marijuana use among inmates a ‘disaster waiting to happen,’ expert says. Fox News. www.foxnews.com/us/synthetic-marijuana-use-among-inmates-a-disaster-waiting-to-happen-expert-saysGoogle Scholar
Kouyoumdjian, F. G., Schuler, A., Hwang, S. W., & Matheson, F. I. (2015). Research on the health of people who experience detention or incarceration in Canada: A scoping review. BMC Public Health, 15, 18. doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1758-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lammers, T. (2018, September 25). Prisons around the country face a growing K2 problem. Fox61. www.fox61.com/article/news/local/outreach/awareness-months/prisons-around-the-country-face-a-growing-k2-problem/Google Scholar
Law Council of Australia. (2018, August). The justice project final report: Introduction and overview. www.lawcouncil.asn.au/files/web-pdf/Justice%20Project/Final%20Report/Introduction%20and%20Overview.pdfGoogle Scholar
Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (2001). Child delinquents: Development, intervention, and service needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magaletta, P., & Boothby, J. (2003). Correctional mental health professionals. In Fagan, T. J. & Ax, R. K. (Eds.), Correctional mental health handbook (pp. 2137). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mai, C., & Subramanian, R. (2017, May). The price of prisons: Examining state spending trends, 2010–2015. Vera Institute of Justice. https://storage.googleapis.com/vera-web-assets/downloads/Publications/price-of-prisons-2015-state-spending-trends/legacy_downloads/the-price-of-prisons-2015-state-spending-trends.pdfGoogle Scholar
McCrickard, L., Marlow, M., Self, J. L., et al. (2017). Notes from the field: Botulism outbreak from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol in a federal correctional facility – Mississippi, June 2016. MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(52), 14911492. www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6552a8.htmGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, M., Pettus-Davis, C., Brown, D., Veeh, C., & Renn, T. (2016). The economic burden of incarceration in the U.S. (Working Paper No. CI072016). https://advancingjustice.wustl.edu/SiteCollectionDocuments/TheEconomicBurdenofIncarcerationintheUS.pdfGoogle Scholar
Morris, R. G., & Johnson, M. C. (2014). Sedentary activities, peer behavior, and delinquency among American youth. Crime & Delinquency, 60(6), 939968. doi.org/10.1177/0011128710386205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhunthan, J., Eades, A., & Jan, S. (2016). UN-led universal periodic review highly critical of Australia’s record on human rights and health for Indigenous Australians. BMJ Global Health, 1(1), 15. doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2015-000018CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018, February). Synthetic cannabinoids (K2/spice). www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/synthetic-cannabinoids-k2spiceGoogle Scholar
National Resource Center on Children & Families of the Incarcerated. (2014). Children and families of the incarcerated 2014 fact sheet. https://nrccfi.camden.rutgers.edu/files/nrccfi-fact-sheet-2014.pdfGoogle Scholar
Newsome, J., & Sullivan, C. (2014). Resilience and vulnerability in adolescents: Genetic influences on differential response to risk for delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(7), 10801095. doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0108-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olds, D., Henderson, C. R., Cole, R., et al. (1998). Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children’s criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(14), 12381244. doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.14.1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palk, G., Hayes, H., & Prenzler, T. (1998). Restorative justice and community conferencing: Summary of findings from a pilot study. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 10(2), 138155. doi.org/10.1080/10345329.1998.12036123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prenzler, T. (2009). Ethics and accountability in criminal justice: Towards a universal standard. Bowen Hills, Australia: Australian Academic Press.Google Scholar
Reingle, J. M., Jennings, W. G., & Maldonado-Molina, M. M. (2012). Risk and protective factors for trajectories of violent delinquency among a nationally representative sample of early adolescents. Journal of Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 10(3), 261277. doi.org/10.1177/1541204011431589CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, L. (2003). Other special offender populations. In Fagan, T. J. & Ax, R. K. (Eds.), Correctional mental health handbook (pp. 199216). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rocque, M., Welsh, B. C., & Raine, A. (2012). Biosocial criminology and modern crime prevention. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(4), 306312. doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.05.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruland, S. (2018, September 7). What you need to know about K2 – The synthetic marijuana that triggered Pa. prison lockdown. York Daily Record. https://eu.ydr.com/story/news/2018/09/05/k-2-synthetic-marijuana-weed-caused-pennsylvania-prison-lockdown-what-you-need-know/1192337002/Google Scholar
Sawyer, W., & Wagner, P. (2019, March 19). Mass incarceration: The whole pie 2019. Prison Policy Initiative. www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2019.htmlGoogle Scholar
Smith, C., & Rynne, J. (2014). Corrections. In Hayes, H. & Prenzler, T. (Eds.), An introduction to crime and criminology (pp. 309322). Melbourne, Australia: Pearson.Google Scholar
Stürup-Toft, S., O’Moore, E. J., & Plugge, E. H. (2018). Looking behind the bars: Emerging health issues for people in prison. British Medical Bulletin, 125(1), 1523. doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx052CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tilton-Weaver, L. C., Burk, W. J., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2013). Can parental monitoring and peer management reduce the selection or influence of delinquent peers? Testing the question using a dynamic social network approach. Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 20572070. doi.org/10.1037/a0031854CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (n.d.). Crime prevention through sports. www.unodc.org/dohadeclaration/en/topics/crime-prevention-through-sports.htmlGoogle Scholar
Unnever, J. D., Cullen, F. T., & Barnes, J. C. (2016). Racial discrimination, weakened school bonds, and problematic behaviors: Testing a theory of African-American offending. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 53(2), 139164. doi.org/10.1177/0022427815610794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van der Laan, A. M., Blom, M., & Kleemans, E. R. (2009). Exploring long-term and short-term risk factors for serious delinquency. European Journal of Criminology, 6(5), 419438. doi.org/10.1177/1477370809337882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walters, G. D. (1990). The criminal lifestyle: Patterns of serious criminal conduct. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wasserman, G. A., Keenan, K., Tremblay, R. E., et al. (2003, April). Risk and protective factors of child delinquency. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (Child Delinquency Bulletin Series), 115.Google Scholar
Weaver, C. M., Borkowski, J. G., & Whitman, T. L. (2008). Violence breeds violence: Childhood exposure and adolescent conduct problems. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1), 96112. doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20219CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Welch, M. (2004). Corrections: A critical approach (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
Wildeman, C., & Wang, E. A. (2017). Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA. The Lancet, 389(10077), 14641474. doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30259-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, J. H., Ayers, C. D., Abbott, R. D., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1999). Racial differences in risk factors for delinquency and substance use among adolescents. Social Work Research, 23(4), 241256. doi.org/10.1093/swr/23.4.241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willis, M., & Moore, J. P. (2008). Reintegration of Indigenous prisoners (Research and Public Policy Series No. 90). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. www.aic.gov.au/publications/rpp/rpp90Google Scholar
Yoshikawa, H. (1995). Long-term effects of early childhood programs on social outcomes and delinquency. The Future of Children, 5(3), 5175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zagar, R. J., Busch, K. G., & Hughes, J. R. (2009a). Empirical risk factors for delinquency and best treatments: Where do we go from here? Psychological Reports, 104(1), 279308. doi.org/10.2466/PR0.104.1.279-308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zagar, R. J., Isbel, S. A., Busch, K. G., & Hughes, J. R. (2009b). An empirical theory of the development of homicide within individuals. Psychological Reports, 104(1), 199245. doi.org/10.2466/PR0.104.1.199-245CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×