Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-54jdg Total loading time: 1.513 Render date: 2022-08-15T08:19:32.135Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

27 - Mental Health on College Campuses

from Part III - Community Psychology in Action

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 December 2021

Caroline S. Clauss-Ehlers
Long Island University, New York
Get access


The chapter examines current trends in the prevalence of mental health issues for American college students. The use of mental health services is discussed, along with insights into barriers to treatment and harm-reduction efforts. The chapter closes with recommendations for future directions in addressing mental health challenges across campuses in the United States.

The Cambridge Handbook of Community Psychology
Interdisciplinary and Contextual Perspectives
, pp. 562 - 589
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Altschuler, K., Hoodin, F., & Byrd, M. (2008). The need for integrating behavioral care in a college health center. Health Psychology, 27(3), 388393. Scholar
American College Health Association. (2009). American College Health Association–National College Health Assessment Spring 2008 reference group data report (abridged): The American College Health Association. Journal of American College Health, 57(5), 477488. Scholar
American College Health Association. (2019, Spring). American College Health Association – National College Health Assessment II: Undergraduate student executive summary. Silver Spring, MD: American College Health Association. Scholar
American College Health Association. (2008, Fall). National college health assessment: Reference group executive summary. Baltimore, MD: Author.Google Scholar
Andersson, G., & Cuijpers, P. (2009). Internet-based and other computerized psychological treatments for adult depression: A meta-analysis. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 38(4), 196205. ScholarPubMed
Andrews, G., Basu, A., Cuijpers, P., et al. (2018). Computer therapy for the anxiety and depression disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: An updated meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 55, 7078. ScholarPubMed
Auerbach, R. P., Alonso, J., Axinn, W. G., et al. (2018). WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project: Prevalence and distribution of mental disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127(7), 623638. ScholarPubMed
Barry, A., Jackson, Z., Watkins, D., Goodwill, J. R., & Hunt, E. R. H. (2017). Alcohol use and mental health conditions among Black college males: Do those attending postsecondary minority institutions fare better than those at primarily White institutions? American Journal of Men’s Health, 11(4), 962968. ScholarPubMed
Beck, J. S. (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy: Basics and beyond (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Beiter, R., Nash, R., McCrady, M., et al. (2015). The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 173, 9096. Scholar
Brody, D. J., Pratt, L. A., & Hughes, J. P. (2018). Prevalence of depression among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 2013–2016. NCHS Data Brief, 303, 18. Scholar
Bruffaerts, R., Mortier, P., Kiekens, G., et al. (2018). Mental health problems in college freshmen: Prevalence and academic functioning. Journal of Affective Disorders, 225, 97103. ScholarPubMed
Brunner, J. L., Wallace, D. L., Reymann, L. S., Sellers, J.-J., & McCabe, A. G. (2014). College counseling today: Contemporary students and how counseling centers meet their needs. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 28(4), 257324. Scholar
Burlingame, G. M., Fuhriman, A., & Mosier, J. (2003). The differential effectiveness of group psychotherapy: A meta-analytic perspective. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 7(1), 312. Scholar
Burns, N. M., Beagle, M., Duffecy, J., et al. (2011). Harnessing context sensing to develop a mobile intervention for depression. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13(3), 117. ScholarPubMed
Carlbring, P., Andersson, G., Cuijpers, P., Riper, H., & Hedman-Langerlöf, E. (2018). Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 47(1), 118. ScholarPubMed
Carlbring, P., Nilsson-Ihrfelt, E., Waara, J., et al. (2005). Treatment of panic disorder: Live therapy vs. self-help via the Internet. Behavior Research and Therapy, 43(10), 13211333. Scholar
Center for Collegiate Mental Health. (2021, January). 2020 annual report (Publication No. STA 21-045). Scholar
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). National Vital Statistics System – mortality data for via CDC WONDER. Scholar
Cheng, H., Kwan, K. K., & Sevig, T. (2013). Racial and ethnic minority college students’ stigma associated with seeking psychological help: Examining psychocultural correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(1), 98111. ScholarPubMed
Chibanda, D., Weiss, H. A., Verhey, R., et al. (2016). Effect of a primary care-based psychological intervention on symptoms of common mental disorders in Zimbabwe. JAMA, 316(24), 26182626. ScholarPubMed
Coduti, W. A., Hayes, J. A., Locke, B. D., & Yoon, S. J. (2016). Mental health and professional help-seeking among college students with disabilities. Rehabilitation Psychology, 61(3), 288296. ScholarPubMed
Cohn, M. A., Pietrucha, M. E., Saslow, L. R., Hult, J. R., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2014). An online positive affect skills intervention reduces depression in adults with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(6), 523534. ScholarPubMed
Conley, C. S., Durlak, J. A., & Kirsch, A. C. (2015). A meta-analysis of universal mental health prevention programs for higher education students. Prevention Science, 16(4), 487507. ScholarPubMed
Corona, R., Rodriguez, V., McDonald, S., et al. (2017). Associations between cultural stressors, cultural values, and Latina/o college students’ mental health. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(1), 6377. ScholarPubMed
Corrigan, P. (2004). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59(7), 614625. ScholarPubMed
Crocker, J., & Luhtanen, R. K. (2003). Level of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth: Unique effects on academic, social, and financial problems in college students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(6), 701712. ScholarPubMed
Cukrowicz, K. C., Schlegel, E. F., Smith, P. N., et al. (2011). Suicide ideation among college students evidencing subclinical depression. Journal of American College Health, 59(7), 575581. ScholarPubMed
Cusack, S. E., Hicks, T. A., Bourdon, J., et al. (2019). Prevalence and predictors of PTSD among a college sample. Journal of American College Health, 67(2), 123131. ScholarPubMed
Dahlstrom, E., & Bichsel, J. (2014, October). ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology. Louisville, CO: ECAR. Scholar
Davies, E. B., Morriss, R., & Glazebrook, C. (2014). Computer-delivered and Web-based interventions to improve depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being of university students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(5), Article e130. ScholarPubMed
De Luca, S. M., Franklin, C., Yueqi, Y., Johnson, S., & Brownson, C. (2016). The relationship between suicide ideation, behavioral health, and college academic performance. Community Mental Health Journal, 52(5), 534540. ScholarPubMed
Denton, L., Gross, J., & Wojcik, C. (2017). Group counseling in the college setting: An international survey of center directors. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 67(4), 540564. Scholar
Downs, N., Alderman, T., Schneiber, K., & Swerdlow, N. R. (2016). Treat and teach our students well: College mental health and collaborative campus communities. Psychiatric Services, 67(9), 957963.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Downs, N., Galles, E., Skehan, B., & Lipson, S. K. (2018). Be true to our schools: Models of care in college mental health. Current Psychiatry Reports, 20(9), Article 72. ScholarPubMed
Dunbar, M. S., Sontag-Padilla, L., Kase, C. A., Seelam, R., & Stein, B. D. (2018). Unmet mental health treatment need and attitudes toward online mental health services among community college students. Psychiatric Services, 69(5), 597600. ScholarPubMed
DuPaul, G. J., Weyandt, L. L., O’Dell, S. M., & Varejao, M. (2009). College students with ADHD: Current status and future directions. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13(3), 234250. ScholarPubMed
Ebert, D. D., Franke, M., Kählke, F., et al. (2018). Increasing intentions to use mental health services among university students: Results of a pilot randomized controlled trial within the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health International College Student Initiative. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 28(2), Article e1754. ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, D., Golberstein, E., & Gollust, S. E. (2007). Help-seeking and access to mental health care in a university student population. Medical Care, 45(7), 594601. Scholar
Eisenberg, D., Golberstein, E., Hunt, J. B. (2009). Mental health and academic success in college. The B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 9(1), 135. Scholar
Eisenberg, D., Gollust, S. E., Golberstein, E., & Hefner, J. L. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and suicidality among university students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 534543. ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, D., Hunt, J., Speer, N., & Zivin, K. (2011). Mental health service utilization among college students in the United States. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 199(5), 301308. ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, D., Lipson, S. K., Ceglarek, P., et al. (2019). The Healthy Minds study: 2018–2019 data report. Healthy Minds Network. Scholar
Eisenberg, D., Nicklett, E. J., Roeder, K., & Kirz, N. E. (2011). Eating disorder symptoms among college students: Prevalence, persistence, and correlates, and treatment-seeking. Journal of American College Health, 59(8), 700707. ScholarPubMed
Fawcett, E., Neary, M., Ginsburg, R., & Cornish, P. (2020). Comparing the effectiveness of individual and group therapy for students with symptoms of anxiety and depression: A randomized pilot study. Journal of American College Health, 68(4), 430437. ScholarPubMed
Fox, S. (2011). Health topics: 80% of internet users look for health information online. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Scholar
Francis, C., Bradley, J., Bass, C., Scipio, K., & Braithwaite, R. (2016). Black college women sexual health peer education at Clark Atlanta University. Journal of the Georgia Public Health Association, 6(2), 223230. Scholar
Franklin, J. D. (2019). Coping with racial battle fatigue: Differences and similarities for African American and Mexican American college students. Race Ethnicity and Education, 22(5), 589609. Scholar
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218226. ScholarPubMed
Gallagher, R. P. (2015). National survey of college counseling centers 2014 (9V). University of Pittsburg. Scholar
Gibbons, S., Trette-Mclean, T., Crandall, A., et al. (2019). Undergraduate students survey their peers on mental health: Perspectives and strategies for improving college counseling center outreach. Journal of American College Health, 67(6), 580591. ScholarPubMed
Gollust, S. E., Eisenberg, D., & Golberstein, E. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of self-injury among university students. Journal of American College Health, 56(5), 491498. ScholarPubMed
Gruber, J., Prinstein, M. J., Clarke, L. A., et al. (2020). Mental health and clinical psychological science in the time of COVID-19: Challenges, opportunities, and a call to action. American Psychologist. Scholar
Hedman, E., Andersson, G., Ljótsson, B., et al. (2011). Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. PLoS ONE, 6(3), Article e18001. ScholarPubMed
Hefner, J., & Eisenberg, D. (2009). Social support and mental health among college students. American Journal Orthopsychiatry, 79(4), 491499. ScholarPubMed
Hunt, J., & Eisenberg, D. (2010). Mental health problems and help-seeking behavior among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1), 310. ScholarPubMed
Hysenbegasi, A., Hass, S. L., & Rowland, C. R. (2005). The impact of depression on the academic productivity of university students. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 8(3), 145151. ScholarPubMed
Ibrahim, A., Kelly, S., Adams, C. E., & Glazebrook, C. (2013). A systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(3), 391400. ScholarPubMed
Janowiak, S. M., Mei-tal, R., & Drapkin, R. G. (1995). Living with loss: A group for bereaved college students. Death Studies, 19(1), 5563. Scholar
Jolstedt, M., Ljótsson, B., Fredlander, T., et al. (2018). Implementation of internet-delivered CBT for children with anxiety disorders in a rural area: A feasibility trial. Internet Interventions, 12, 121129. Scholar
Jones, P. J., Park, S. Y., & Lefevor, G. T. (2018). Contemporary college student anxiety: The role of academic distress, financial stress, and support. Journal of College Counseling, 21(3), 252264. Scholar
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: How to cope with stress, pain and illness using mindfulness meditation (Rev. ed.). New York: Hachette.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617627. ScholarPubMed
Kirsch, D. J., Pinder-Amaker, S. L., Morse, C., et al. (2014). Population-based initiatives in college mental health: Students helping students to overcome obstacles. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16(525), 18. ScholarPubMed
Kisch, J., Leino, E. V., & Silverman, M. M. (2005). Aspects of suicidal behavior, depression, and treatment in college students: Results from the Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment Survey. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35(1), 313. ScholarPubMed
Kitzrow, M. (2003). The mental health needs of today’s college students: Challenges and recommendations. NASPA Journal, 41(1), 167181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kruisselbrink Flatt, A. (2013). A suffering generation: Six factors contributing to the mental health crisis in North American higher education. College Quarterly, 16(1), Article EJ1016492.Google Scholar
Kulick, A., Wernick, L. J., Woodford, M. R., & Renn, K. (2017). Heterosexism, depression, and campus engagement among LGBTQ college students: Intersectional differences and opportunities for healing. Journal of Homosexuality, 64(8), 11251141. ScholarPubMed
Lamers, S. M., Bolier, L., Westerhof, G. J., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2012). The impact of emotional well-being on long-term recovery and survival in physical illness: A meta-analysis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35(5), 538547. ScholarPubMed
Lee, E.-J., Ditchman, N., Fong, M. W. M., Piper, L., & Feigon, M. (2014). Mental health service seeking among Korean international students in the United States: A path analysis. Journal of Community Psychology, 42(6), 639655. Scholar
LeViness, P., Bershad, C., & Gorman, K. (2017). The Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors annual survey. Scholar
Lewis, C. C., Boyd, M., Puspitasari, A., et al. (2018). Implementing measurement-based care in behavioral health: A review. JAMA Psychiatry, 76(3), 324335. Scholar
Lindley, E. (2012). Inclusive dialogue: The way forward in anti-stigma mental health education? Journal of Public Mental Health, 11(2), 7787. DOI:10.1108/17465721211236426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipson, S. K., Kern, A., Eisenberg, D., & Breland-Noble, A. M. (2018). Mental health disparities among college students of color. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63(3), 348356. ScholarPubMed
Lipson, S. K., Speer, N., Brunwasser, S., Hahn, E., & Eisenberg, D. (2014). Gatekeeper training and access to mental health care at universities and colleges. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(5), 612619. ScholarPubMed
Liu, C. H., Stevens, C., Wong, S. H. M., Yasui, M., & Chen, J. A. (2019). The prevalence and predictors of mental health diagnoses and suicide among U.S. college students: Implications for addressing disparities in service use. Depression and Anxiety, 36(1), 817. ScholarPubMed
Locke, B., Bieschke, K. & Castonguay, L., & Hayes, J. (2012). The Center for Collegiate Mental Health: Studying college student mental health through an innovative research infrastructure that brings science and practice together. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 20(4), 233245. Scholar
Mackenzie, S., Wiegel, J. R., Mundt, M., Brown, D., Saewyc, E., Heiligenstein, E., Harahan, B., & Fleming, M. (2011). Depression and suicide ideation among students accessing campus health care. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(1), 101107. ScholarPubMed
March, S., Day, J., Ritchie, G., et al. (2018). Attitudes toward e-mental health services in a community sample of adults: Online survey. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(2), Article e59. Scholar
Masuda, A., Anderson, P. L., Twohig, M. P., et al. (2009). Help-seeking experiences and attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American college students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 31(3), 168180. Scholar
Masuda, A., Suzumura, K., Beauchamp, K. L., Howells, G. N., & Clay, C. (2005). United States and Japanese college students’ attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. International Journal of Psychology, 40(5), 303313. Scholar
Matthews, M., Doherty, G., Coyle, D., & Sharry, J. (2008). Designing mobile applications to support mental health interventions. In Lumsden, J. (Ed.), Handbook of research on user interface design and evaluation for mobile technology (pp. 635656). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674697.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mortier, P., Auerbach, R., Alonso, J., et al. (2018). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among first-year college students: Results from the WMH-ICS project. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(4), 263273. ScholarPubMed
Munoz, R. F., Chavira, D. A., Himle, J. K., et al. (2018). Digital apothecaries: A vision for making health care interventions accessible worldwide, mHealth, 4(18). ScholarPubMed
National Institute of Mental Health. (2019). Technology and the future of mental health treatment. Scholar
Olfson, M., Guardino, M., Struening, E., et al. (2000). Barriers to the treatment of social anxiety. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(4), 521527. ScholarPubMed
O’Malley, P. M., & Johnson, L. D. (2002). Epidemiology of alcohol use and other drug use among American college students. Journal of the Study of Alcohol, Supplement, 14, 2329. Scholar
O’Neill, D., & Fry, M. (2013). The grief group: A university and hospice collaboration. Journal of College Student Development, 54(4), 430432. Scholar
Parks, A. C., Della Porta, M. D., Pierce, R. S., Zilca, R., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2012). Pursuing happiness in everyday life: The characteristics and behaviors of online happiness seekers. Emotion, 12(6), 12221234. ScholarPubMed
Parks, A. C., & Layous, K. (2016). Positive psychological interventions. In Norcross, J. C., VandenBos, G. R., Freedheim, D. K., & Krishnamurthy, R. (Eds.), Handbook of clinical psychology: Applications and methods (pp. 439449). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parks, A. C., Williams, A. L., Tugade, M. M., et al. (2018). Testing a scalable web and smartphone based intervention to improve depression, anxiety, and resilience: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Wellbeing, 8(2), 2267. Scholar
Pedrelli, P., Nyer, M., Yeung, A., Zulauf, C., & Wilens, T. (2015). College students: Mental health problems and treatment considerations. Academic Psychiatry, 39(5), 503511. ScholarPubMed
Prince, J. P. (2015). University student counseling and mental health in the United States: Trends and challenges. Mental Health & Prevention, 3(1–2), 510. Scholar
Prior, A. (2015). A guide to setting up a college bereavement group: Using monologue, soliloquy, and dialogue. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 29(2), 111119. doi:10.1080/87568225.2015.1008366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reavley, N., & Jorm, A. F. (2010). Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: A review. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 4(2), 132142. ScholarPubMed
Reicher, H., & Matischek-Jauk, M. (2018). Depressive adolescents at risk of social exclusion: The potentials of social-emotional learning in schools. Improving Schools, 22(1), 4354. Scholar
Reid, A. M. (2015). Do NOT close the gate on gatekeeper training at universities and colleges. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(3), 360. ScholarPubMed
Rickwood, D. J., Deane, F. P., & Wilson, C. J. (2007). When and how do young people seek professional help for mental health problems? The Medical Journal of Australia, 187(7), S35S39. Scholar
Rigotti, N. A., Lee, J. E., & Wechsler, H. (2000). US college students’ use of tobacco products: Results of a national survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(6), 699705. ScholarPubMed
Rowell, P. C., Mobley, A. K., Kemer, G., & Giordano, A. (2014). Examination of a group counseling model of career decision making with college students. Journal of College Counseling, 17(2), 163174. Scholar
Sabina, C., & Straus, M. A. (2008). Polyvictimization by dating partners and mental health among college students. Violence and Victims, 23(6), 667682. ScholarPubMed
Scantlebury, A., Parker, A., Booth, A., McDaid, C., & Mitchell, N. (2018). Implementing mental health training programmes for non-mental health trained professionals: A qualitative synthesis. PLoS ONE, 13(6), Article e0199746. ScholarPubMed
Schleider, J. L., Dobias, M. L., Sung, J. Y., & Mullarkey, M. C. (2020). Future directions in single-session youth mental health interventions. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 49(2), 264278. ScholarPubMed
Schueller, S. M., & Parks, A. C. (2012). Disseminating self-help: Positive psychology exercises in an online trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(3), Article e63. Scholar
Sin, N. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 467487. ScholarPubMed
Singla, D. R., Kohrt, B. A., Murray, L. K., et al. (2017). Psychological treatments for the world: Lessons from low-and middle-income countries. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 13, 149181. ScholarPubMed
Slutske, W. S. (2005). Alcohol use disorders among US college students and their non-college-attending peers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(3), 321327. ScholarPubMed
Smets, E., Rios, V. E., Schiavone, G., et al. (2018). Large-scale wearable data reveal digital phenotypes for daily-life stress detection. NPJ Digital Medicine, 1, Article 67. ScholarPubMed
Smith, W. A., Hung, M., & Franklin, J. D. (2011). Racial battle fatigue and the miseducation of black men: Racial microaggressions, societal problems, and environmental stress. Journal of Negro Education, 80(1), 6382. Scholar
Spek, V., Cuijpers, P., Nyklícek, I., et al. (2006). Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for symptoms of depression and anxiety: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 37(3), 319328. ScholarPubMed
Stallman, H. M. (2010). Psychological distress in university students: A comparison with general population data. Australian Psychologist, 45(4), 249257. Scholar
Stephens, N., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, L. T. (2014). Social class culture cycles: How three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 611634. ScholarPubMed
Stice, E., Nathan Marti, C., Shaw, H., et al. (2009). An 8-year longitudinal study of the natural history of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders from a community sample of adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(3), 587597. ScholarPubMed
Stolzenberg, E. B., Eagan, M. K., Aragon, M. C., et al. (2019). The American freshman: National norms Fall 2017. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA.Google Scholar
Stone, B. M., & Parks, A. C. (2018). Cultivating subjective well-being through positive psychological interventions. In Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Tay, L. (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: Noba Scholars.Google Scholar
Strine, T. W., Mokdad, A. H., Balluz, L. S., et al. (2015). Depression and anxiety in the United States: Findings from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Psychiatric Services, 59(12), 13831390. Scholar
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of national findings [NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795]. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Scholar
Tan, T. Y., Wachsmuth, L. S., & Tugade, M. M. (2019). Resilience. In Maggino, F. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Torous, J., Onnela, J.-P., & Keshavan, M. (2017). New dimensions and new tools to realize the potential of RDoC: Digital phenotyping via smartphones and connected devices. Translational Psychiatry, 7(3), e1053. ScholarPubMed
Treichler, E. B. H., & Lucksted, A. A. (2018). The role of sense of belonging in self-stigma among people with serious mental illnesses. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 41(2), 149152. doi: 10.1037/prj0000281CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Twenge, J. M., Martin, G. N., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Decreases in psychological well-being among American adolescents after 2012 and links to screen time during the rise of smartphone technology. Emotion, 18(6), 765780. ScholarPubMed
Twentyman, J., Frank, M., & Lindsey, L. (2017). Effects of race and ethnicity on mental health and help-seeking amongst undergraduate university students. Journal of Undergraduate Ethnic Minority Psychology, 3, 615.Google Scholar
Vaingankar, J. A., Rekhi, G., Subramaniam, M., et al. (2013). Age of onset of life-time mental disorders and treatment contact. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(5), 835843. ScholarPubMed
Wachsmuth, L. S., Tan, T. Y., & Tugade, M. M. (under review). Examining life as it is lived: Experience sampling methodology for positive psychology intervention research.Google Scholar
Wang, P. S., Lane, M., Olfson, M., et al. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 629640. ScholarPubMed
Webb, C. A., Rosso, I. M., & Rauch, S. L. (2017). Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression: Current progress and future directions. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 25(3), 114122. ScholarPubMed
Wilens, T. E., Adler, L. A., Adams, J., et al. (2008). Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(1), 2131. ScholarPubMed
Williams, G., Case, R., & Roberts, C. (2018). Understanding the mental health issues of international students on campus. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 29(2), 1828.Google Scholar
Yang, R. K., Byers, S. R., & Fenton, B. (2006). American Indian/Alaska Native students’ use of a university student support office. Journal of American Indian Education, 45(1), 3548.Google Scholar
Wu, H. P., Garza, E., & Guzman, N. (2015). International students’ challenge and adjustment to college. Education Research International, 1–9. Scholar
Zulueta, J., Piscitello, A., Rasic, M., et al. (2018). Predicting mood disturbance severity with mobile phone keystroke metadata: A BiAffect digital phenotyping study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(7), e241. ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats