Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-gctlb Total loading time: 1.362 Render date: 2022-07-04T10:07:50.802Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

11 - Maltese

A Peripheral Dialect in the Historical Dialectology of Arabic

from Part II - Arabic Variation and Sociolinguistics

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 September 2021

Karin Ryding
Affiliation:
Georgetown University, Washington DC
David Wilmsen
Affiliation:
American University of Beirut
Get access

Summary

David Wilmsen examines Maltese, a peripheral dialect of Arabic. Of those, Maltese stands out as remarkably unusual. Unlike other dialects of Arabic, it is an official language of the state in which its speakers reside, the Republic of Malta, as well as being an official language of the European Union. It boasts a long literary tradition, a language academy, an active press, scholarly journals and societies devoted to it, and an ever-growing digital presence, including a large online, freely accessible corpus encompassing hundreds of millions of words. It is therefore an easily accessible language for linguistic research. The chapter examines Maltese in light of linguistic thinking about so-called enclave dialects, showing that Maltese conforms to the general characteristics of remnant dialect groupings, in that it does borrow from the languages with which it comes into contact, it does undergo independent internal change, and it does retain features of its founder languages. As such, Maltese can be instrumental in demarking the latest date for the emergence of a range of features found variously in mainland dialects of Arabic.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Al-Jallad, A. (2015). An Outline of the Grammar of the Safaitic Inscriptions. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Jallad, A. (2018). The earliest attestation of laysa and the implications for its etymology. In Macdonald, M. C. A., ed., Languages, Scripts And Their Uses in Ancient North Arabia. (Supplement to volume 48 of the Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies). Oxford: Archaeopress, 111–19.Google Scholar
Anderson, G., Fenwick, C., and Rosser-Owen, M. (2018). The Aghlabids and their Neighbors: An Introduction. In Anderson, G., Fenwick, C., and Rosser-Owen, M., eds., The Aghlabids and Their Neighbours: Art and Material Culture in 9th-Century North Africa. Leiden: Brill, 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avram, A. (2014). The fate of the interdental fricatives in Maltese. Romano-Arabica, XIV, 1932.Google Scholar
Avram, A. (2016). Phonological changes in Maltese: Evidence from onomastics. In Puech, G. and Saade, B., eds., Shifts and Patterns in Maltese. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 4989.Google Scholar
Behnstedt, P. (1997).Sprachatlas von Syrien, 1 Kartenband. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Behnstedt, P. (2016). Dialect Atlas of North Yemen and Adjacent Areas. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borg, A. (1997). Maltese phonology. In Kaye, A. S. and Daniels, P. T., eds., Phonologies of Asia and Africa: Including the Caucasus, vol. 1. Mahwah, NJ: Eisenbrauns, 245–85.Google Scholar
Borg, A. and Azzopardi-Alexander, M. (1997). Maltese. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Brincat, J. M. (1995). Malta 870–1054: al-Himyarī’s Account and Its Linguistic Implications. Valletta, Malta: Said International.Google Scholar
Brincat, J. M. (2008). Malta. In Versteegh, K., Eid, M, Elgibali, A., Woidich, M., and Zaborski, A., eds., Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, vol. III, Leiden: Brill, 141–5.Google Scholar
Brincat, J. M. (2011). Maltese and Other Languages: A Linguistic History of Malta. Santa Venera, Malta: Midsea Books.Google Scholar
Brincat, J. M. (2018). Maltese: blending Semitic, Romance and Germanic lexemes. Lexicographica: International Annual for Lexicography, 33(1), 207–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brockett, A. A. (1985). The Spoken Arabic of the Khābūra on the Bāṭīna of Oman. Journal of Semitic Studies Monograph, no. 7. Manchester.Google Scholar
Caubet, D. (1983). Quantification, négation, interrogation: les emplois de la particule ‘ši’ en arabe marocain. Arabica, 30(3), 227–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caubet, D. (1984). A la recherche d’un invariant: les emplois de la particule ‘ši’ en arabe marocain. In Culioli, Antoine, ed., Opération de détermination II. Paris: Université Paris VII, 3356.Google Scholar
Cooperson, M. (2015). Al-Ḥimyarī’s Account of Medieval Malta: A Reconsideration. In Amstutz, H., Dorn, A., Müller, M., Ronsdorf, M., and Uljas, S., eds., Fuzzy Boundaries: Festschrift für Antonio Loprieno. Hamburg: Widmaier Verlag, 347–51.Google Scholar
Corriente, F. (1977). A Grammatical Sketch of the Spanish Arabic Dialect Bundle. Madrid: Instituto Hispano-Arabi de Cultura.Google Scholar
Corriente, F. (1997). A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Cowan, W. (1966). Loss of emphasis in Maltese. Journal of Maltese Studies, 3, 2732.Google Scholar
Cowell, M. (2005). A Reference Grammar of Syrian Arabic: Based on the Dialect of Damascus. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Eid, M. (2008). Locatives. In Versteegh, K., Eid, M., Elgibali, A., Woidich, M., and Zaborski, A., eds., Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. Leiden: Brill, 80–8.Google Scholar
Fabri, R. (2010). Maltese. Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 88(3) Langues et littératures modernes, 791816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fiorini, S. and Zammit, M. (2016). Οἱ Παῖδες Ἄγαρ Ἀθέου The Arabs in Malta: 870–1150. Melita Classica, 3, 179208.Google Scholar
Gaspari, F. (2018). The Baṭḥari Language of Oman: Towards a Descriptive Grammar. PhD dissertation, Università degli studi di Napoli ‘L’Orientale’.Google Scholar
Gensler, O. D. (2000). Why Semitic adverbializers (Akkadian -IŠ, Syriac -Ā’ĪT) should not be derived from existential *’IT. Journal of Semitic Studies, XLV(2), 233–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, M. (2008). Tunis Arabic. In Versteegh, K., Eid, M., Elgibali, A., Woidich, M., and Zaborski, A., eds., Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, vol. III. Leiden: Brill, 563–71.Google Scholar
Glanville, P. (2018). Part, whole, and a grammaticalization path for ši + NP. Al-ʿArabiyya, 51, 4968.Google Scholar
Grigore, G. (2019). Peripheral varieties. In Al-Wer, E. and Horesh, U., eds., The Routledge Handbook of Arabic Sociolinguistics. London: Routledge, 117–33.Google Scholar
Harrell, R. S. (2004). A Short Reference Grammar of Moroccan Arabic. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Harvey, L. P. (1990). Islamic Spain, 1250 –1500. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinds, M. and Badawi, E. (1986). A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic: Arabic. Beirut: Librairie du Liban.Google Scholar
Hoberman, R. D. and Aronoff, M. (2003). The verbal morphology of Maltese: From Semitic to Romance. In Shimron, J., ed., Language Processing and Acquisition in Languages of Semitic, Root-Based, Morphology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 6178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holes, C. (2016). Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia, vol. 3 Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Style. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Lucas, C. (2015). On Wilmsen on the development of postverbal negation in dialectal Arabic. SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics, 17, 7795.Google Scholar
Lucas, C. (2018). On Wilmsen on the development of postverbal negation in dialectal Arabic. Zeitschrift für arabische Linguistik, 67, 4470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lucas, C. (2020). Contact and the expression of negation. In Lucas, C. and Manfredi, S., eds., Arabic and Contact-Induced Language Change: A Handbook. Berlin: Language Science Press, 643–67.Google Scholar
Lucas, C. and Čéplö, S. (2020). Maltese. In Lucas, C. and Manfredi, S., eds., Arabic and Contact-Induced Language Change: A Handbook. Berlin: Language Science Press, 265302.Google Scholar
Lucas, C. and Spagnol, M. (Forthcoming). Nunation from Arabic to Maltese. In Saade, B. and Turek, P., eds., Proceedings of Lingwistika Maltija (2019). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Metcalfe, A. (2009). The Muslims of Medieval Italy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Mifsud, M. (1995). Loan Verbs in Maltese: A Descriptive and Comparative Study. Leiden. Brill.Google Scholar
Mifsud, M. (2008). Maltese. In Versteegh, K., Eid, M., Elgibali, A., Woidich, M., and Zaborski, A., eds., Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, vol. II. Leiden: Brill, 146–59.Google Scholar
Montgomery, M. (2000). Isolation as a linguistic construct. Southern Journal of Linguistics, 24, 4153.Google Scholar
Nef, A. (2018). Reinterpreting the Aghlabids’ Sicilian Policy (827–910). In Anderson, G. D., Fenwick, C., and Rosser-Owen, M., eds., The Aghlabids and Their Neighbours: Art and Material Culture in 9th-century North Africa. Leiden: Brill, 7687.Google Scholar
Owens, J. (2005). Pre-diaspora Arabic: Dialects, statistics and historical reconstruction. Diachronica, 22(2), 271308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owens, J. (2010). What is a language? Review of Bernard Comrie, Ray Fabri, Elizabeth Hume, Manwel Mifsud, Thomas Stolz and Martine Vanhove, eds., ‘Introducing Maltese Linguistics: Selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Maltese Linguistics, Bremen, 18–20 October. 2007. Journal of Language Contact, 3, 103–18.Google Scholar
Owens, J. (2019). Variation in Old Arabic. In Al-Wer, E. and Horesh, U., eds., The Routledge Handbook of Arabic Sociolinguistics. London: Routledge, 3043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Procházka, S. and Dallaj, I. (2020). Polar questions in Tunis Arabic. In G. Chikovani and Z. Tskhvediani, eds., Studies on Arabic Dialectology and Sociolinguistics: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of AIDA held in Kutaisi, June 10–13, 2019. Kutaisi: Akaki Tserteli State University Press, 233–40.Google Scholar
Puech, G. (2006). Loss of emphatic and guttural consonants: From medieval to contemporary Maltese. In Paggio, P. and Gatt, A., eds., The Languages of Malta. Berlin: Language Sciences Press, 753.Google Scholar
Singer, H. (1984). Grammatik der arabischen Mundart der Medina von Tunis. Berlin: de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Souag, L. (2018). Berber etymologies in Maltese. International Journal of Arabic Linguistics, 4(1), 190223.Google Scholar
Stumme, H. (1896). Grammatik des tunesischen Arabisch nebst Glossar. Leipzig: J. C. Heinrichs.Google Scholar
Sutcliffe, E. F. (1936). A Grammar of the Maltese Language with Chrestomathy and Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Vanhove, M. (1993). La langue maltaise: Études syntaxiques d’un dialecte arabe périphérique’ . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Vanhove, M. (2009). The nominal quantifier xi in Maltese. In Fabri, R., ed., Maltese Linguistics: A Snapshot; in Memory of Joseph A. Cremona (1922–2003). Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1734.Google Scholar
Van Putten, M. (2017). The illusory Yemenite connection of Andalusi Arabic. Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik, 66, 544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vassalli, M. (1827). Grammatica della Lingua Maltese. Malta.Google Scholar
Vella, F. (1831). Maltese Grammar for the Use of the English. Leghorn (Livorno): Glaucus Masi.Google Scholar
Versteegh, K. (2004). What’s where and how’s what? Interrogatives in Arabic dialects. Estudios de Dialectología Norteafricana y Andalusí, 8, 239–51.Google Scholar
Walter, M. (2002). Pharyngealization effects in Maltese Arabic. In Boudelaa, S., ed., Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics: Papers from the Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics XVI. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 161–78.Google Scholar
Wilmsen, D. (2014). Arabic Indefinites, Interrogatives, and Negators: A Linguistic History of Western Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilmsen, D. (2016a). Polar interrogative in Maltese: Developments and antecedents. In Puech, G. and Saade, B., eds., Shifts and Patterns in Maltese. Berlin: de Gruyter, 175–98.Google Scholar
Wilmsen, D. (2016b). Another Croft Cycle in Arabic: The laysa negative existential cycle. Folia Orientalia, LIII, 327–67.Google Scholar
Wilmsen, D. (2017). Grammaticalization and degrammaticalization in an Arabic existential particle šay. Folia Orientalia, LIV, 279307.Google Scholar
Wilmsen, D. (2020). Croft’s Cycle in Arabic: The negative existential cycle in a single language. Linguistics, 58(2), 493535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilmsen, D. and Al-Sayyed, A. (2019). On morpho-syntactic Levantisms in Maltese. In Miller, C., Barontini, A., Germanos, M., Guerrero, J., and Pereira, P., eds., Studies on Arabic Dialectology and Sociolinguistics: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of AIDA held in Marseille from 30th May–2nd June (2017). Aix-en-Provence: Institut de recherches et d’études sur les mondes arabes et musulmans.Google Scholar
Woidich, M. (2006). Das Kairenisch-Arabische: Eine Grammatik. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W. (2004). The sociolinguistic construction of remnant dialects. In Fought, C., ed., Sociolinguistic Variation: Critical Reflections. New York: Oxford University Press, 84106.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W. and Schilling-Estes, N. (2003). Language change in ‘conservative’ dialects: The case of past tense be in southern enclave communities. American Speech, 78(2), 172202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corpora Korpus Malti: http://mlrs.research.um.edu.mt/CQPweb/malti03/Google Scholar
Tunisian Arabic Corpus: www.tunisiya.orgGoogle Scholar
Corpora Korpus Malti: http://mlrs.research.um.edu.mt/CQPweb/malti03/Google Scholar
Tunisian Arabic Corpus: www.tunisiya.orgGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

  • Maltese
  • Edited by Karin Ryding, Georgetown University, Washington DC, David Wilmsen, American University of Beirut
  • Book: The Cambridge Handbook of Arabic Linguistics
  • Online publication: 23 September 2021
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108277327.012
Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

  • Maltese
  • Edited by Karin Ryding, Georgetown University, Washington DC, David Wilmsen, American University of Beirut
  • Book: The Cambridge Handbook of Arabic Linguistics
  • Online publication: 23 September 2021
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108277327.012
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Maltese
  • Edited by Karin Ryding, Georgetown University, Washington DC, David Wilmsen, American University of Beirut
  • Book: The Cambridge Handbook of Arabic Linguistics
  • Online publication: 23 September 2021
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108277327.012
Available formats
×