Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-mhl4m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-02T11:55:44.466Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part II - The Model of Schema Therapy in Practice

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 July 2023

Robert N. Brockman
Affiliation:
Australian Catholic University
Susan Simpson
Affiliation:
NHS Forth Valley and University of South Australia
Christopher Hayes
Affiliation:
Schema Therapy Institute Australia
Remco van der Wijngaart
Affiliation:
International Society of Schema Therapy
Matthew Smout
Affiliation:
University of South Australia
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Siegel, DJ. Aware: The science and practice of presence – a complete guide to the groundbreaking Wheel of Awareness meditation practice. Tarcherperigree; 2018.Google Scholar
Siegel, DJ, Bryson, TP. The whole-brain child: 12 revolutionary strategies to nurture your child’s developing mind. Bantam Books; 2012.Google Scholar
Linehan, M. Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. Guilford Press; 1993.Google Scholar
Farrell, JM, Shaw, IA, Reiss, N. The schema therapy clinician’s guide: A complete resource for building and delivering individual, group and integrated schema mode treatment programs. Wiley; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roediger, E, Stevens, BA, Brockman, R. Contextual schema therapy: An integrative approach to personality disorders, emotional dysregulation, and interpersonal functioning. New Harbinger Publications; 2018.Google Scholar
Haugh, JA, Miceli, M, DeLorme, J. Maladaptive parenting, temperament, early maladaptive schemas, and depression: a moderated mediation analysis. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2017; 39(1):103–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, JE, Klosko, JS, Weishaar, ME. Schema therapy. Guilford; 2003.Google Scholar
Kennedy, E. Orchids and dandelions: How some children are more susceptible to environmental influences for better or worse and the implications for child development. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry. 2013; 18(3):319–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belsky, M, Pluess, J. Differential susceptibility to rearing experience: the case of childcare. Child Psychology & Psychiatry. 2009; 50(4):396404.Google Scholar
Rothbart, MK, Dweck, CS, Eisenberg, N, Sameroff, AJ, Bates, JE. Becoming who we are: Temperament and personality in development. Guilford Press; 2011.Google Scholar
Cloninger, CR, Svrakic, DM, Przybeck, TR. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1993; 50: 975–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuchs, T, Koch, SC. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved. Frontiers in Psychology. 2014;5:508.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arntz, A, Rijkeboer, M, Chan, E et al. Towards a reformulated theory underlying schema therapy: Position paper of an international workgroup. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2021.Google Scholar
Windhorst, E, Williams, A. Growing up, naturally: The mental health legacy of early nature affiliation. Ecopsychology. 2015;7:115–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groeger, N. Meta needs in the context of schema therapy: Psychometric qualities of a new meta needs questionnaire and relationships with depression, anxiety and schemas. Maastricht Student Journal of Psychology and Neuroscience. 2012;1:6579.Google Scholar
Renye, D. We are the environment: Understanding how when we interpsychically and interpersonally take care and heal ourselves, we aid the evolution of the environment and planet. Presentation at The Annual Meeting of the California Sociological Association; 2007, 17 Nov.; Berkeley, California.Google Scholar
Pilkington, P, Younan, R, Bishop, A. Early maladaptive schemas, suicidal ideation, and self-harm: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports. 2021; 3: 100051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van der Mark, W, van Oort, N. The genogram as a tool to break free from Intergenerational Schema Transference in Present Relationships. A presentation at: International Society of Schema Therapy (ISST) Conference; 2014, 14 June; Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
Siegel, DJ. The developing mind. Guilford Press; 1999.Google Scholar
Young, J, Brown, G. (Eds.). Young Schema Questionnaire – Long form 3. Professional Resource Exchange; 2003.Google Scholar
Young, J. Young Schema Questionnaire-3. Cognitive Therapy Center; 2005.Google Scholar
Yalcin, O, Marais, I, Lee, C, Correia, H. Revisions to the Young Schema Questionnaire using Rasch analysis: The YSQ-R. Australian Psychologist. 2022;57:820, DOI: 10.1080/00050067.2021.1979885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kriston, L, Schäfer, J, Jacob, GA, Härter, M, Hölzel, LP. Reliability and validity of the German version of the Young Schema Questionnaire–Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3). European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2013;29(3):205–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bach, B, Simonsen, E, Christoffersen, P, Kriston, L. The Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3): Psychometric properties and association with personality disorders in a Danish mixed sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2017; 33(2);134–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, J. Young parenting inventory. Cognitive Therapy Center; 1994.Google Scholar
Louis, JP, Wood, AM, Lockwood, G. Psychometric validation of the Young Parenting Inventory – Revised (YPI-R2): Replication and Extension of a commonly used parenting scale in Schema Therapy (ST) research and practice. PloS One. 2018;13(11):e0205605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, JE, Arntz, A, Atkinson, T, Lobbestael, J, Weishaar, ME, van Vreeswijk, MF. The Schema mode inventory. Schema Therapy Institute; 2007.Google Scholar
Louis, JP, Wood, AM, Lockwood, G, Ho, MH, Ferguson, E. Positive clinical psychology and schema therapy (ST): The development of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ) to complement the Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3). Psychological Assessment. 2018;30(9):1199–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weathers, FW, Blake, DD, Schnurr, PP et al. The Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5) [Internet]. National Center for PTSD; 2013. Available from: www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/te-measures/life_events_checklist.aspGoogle Scholar
Holmes, EA, Mathews, A. Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review. 2010; 30(3):349362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siegel, D, Hartzell, M. Parenting from the inside out. Penguin; 2004.Google Scholar
Prochaska, JO, DiClemente, CC. Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1983; 51(3),390–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reubsaet, R. Schema therapy – A phase-oriented approach, targeting tasks and techniques in individual and group schema therapy. Pavilion Publishing; 2021.Google Scholar
Simpson, S, Smith, E. Schema therapy for eating disorders: Theory and practice for individual and group settings. Routledge; 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, D. Self pity/victim: A surrender schema mode. Schema Therapy Bulletin. 2015;1(1):16.Google Scholar
Edwards, DJ. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a single case of anorexia nervosa: Part 2. Coping modes, healthy adult mode, superordinate themes, and implications for research and practice. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology. 2017; 17(1):112.Google Scholar

References

Young, J, Klosko, J, Weishaar, M. Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. Guilford Press; 2003.Google Scholar
Schema Therapy Case Conceptualisation form (2nd Ed., Version 2.22). International Society of Schema Therapy (ISST) Case Conceptualization Committee; 2018.Google Scholar
Simpson, S. Schema therapy conceptualisation of eating disorders. In Simpson, S, Smith, E, eds. Schema therapy for eating disorders: Theory and practice for individual and group settings. Routledge; 2020. pp. 5666.Google Scholar

References

Zimmerman, M, Rothschild, L, Chelminski, I. The Prevalence of DSM-IV Personality Disorders in Psychiatric Outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2005;162(10):1911–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Behary, W, Dieckmann, E. Schema therapy for pathological narcissism: The art of adaptive reparenting. In Ogrodniczuk, J, ed., Understanding and Treating Pathological Narcissism. American Psychological Association; 2013. pp. 285300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fassbinder, E, Arntz, A. Schema therapy with emotionally inhibited and fearful patients. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy. 2018;49(1):714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tan, Y, Lee, C, Averbeck, L et al. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: A qualitative study of patients’ perceptions. PloS ONE. 2018;13(11):e0206039.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexander, F, French, T. Psychoanalytic therapy: Principles and application. University of Nebraska Press; 1946.Google Scholar
Brockman, R, Stevens, B, Roediger, E. Contextual schema therapy: An integrative approach to personality disorders, emotional dysregulation, and interpersonal functioning. New Harbinger Publications; 2018.Google Scholar
Kannan, D, Levitt, H. A review of client self-criticism in psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 2013;23(2):166–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bamelis, LL, Evers, SM, Spinhoven, P, Arntz, A. Results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2014, 171(3), 305–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Malogiannis, I, Arntz, A, Spyropoulou, A et al. Schema therapy for patients with chronic depression: A single case series study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 2014;45(3):319–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giesen-Bloo, J, van Dyck, R, Spinhoven, P et al. Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2006;63(6):649.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernstein, DP, Keulen-de Vos, M, Clercx, M et al. Schema therapy for violent PD offenders: A randomized clinical trial. Psychological medicine. 2021 Jun. 15:15.Google Scholar
Huntjens, RJ, Rijkeboer, MM, Arntz, A. Schema therapy for dissociative identity disorder (DID): Rationale and study protocol. European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 2019 Dec. 31;10(1):1571377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bettelheim, B. A good enough parent. Pan Books; 1987.Google Scholar

References

Young, J, Klosko, J, Weishaar, M. Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. Guilford Press; 2003.Google Scholar
Louis, J, Louis, K. Good enough parenting. Morgan James Publishing; 2015.Google Scholar
Louis, J, Wood, A, Lockwood, G. Development and validation of the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory (PPSI) to complement the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI) for Schema Therapy (ST). Assessment. 2018;27(4):766–86.Google Scholar
Roediger, E, Stevens, B, Brockman, R Contextual schema therapy: An integrative approach to personality disorders, emotional dysregulation, and interpersonal functioning. New Harbinger Publications; 2018.Google Scholar
Brockman, R, Stavropoulos, A. Repetitive negative thinking in eating disorders: Identifying and bypassing overanalysing coping modes and building schema attunement. In Simpson, S, Smith, E, eds. Schema therapy for eating disorders: Identifying and bypassing overanalysing coping modes and building schema attunement. 1st ed. Routledge; 2019. pp. 6981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erskine, R. Attunement and involvement: therapeutic responses to relational needs. In Relational Patterns, Therapeutic Presence. Routledge; 2018. pp. 4355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feeney, B. The dependency paradox in close relationships: Accepting dependence promotes independence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2007;92(2):268–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Vreeswijk, M. Authenticity and personal openness in schema therapy. In Heath, G, Startup, H, eds. Creative methods in schema therapy: Advances and innovation in clinical practice. 1st ed. Taylor & Francis; 2020, pp. 237252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farrell, J, Shaw, I. Experiencing schema therapy from the inside out: A self-practice/self-reflection workbook for therapists. Guilford Publications; 2018.Google Scholar

References

Beck, A. Thinking and depression: Idiosyncratic content and cognitive distortions. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1963;9(4):324–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fennell, M. Low self-esteem: A cognitive perspective. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 1997;25(1):126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Padesky, C. Socratic questioning: Changing minds or guiding discovery. A keynote address delivered at the European Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, London. 24 Sep., 1993 (Vol. 24).Google Scholar
Clark, G, Egan, S. The Socratic method in cognitive behavioural therapy: A narrative review. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2015;39(6):863–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Overholser, J. The Socratic method of psychotherapy. Columbia University Press; 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, J, Beck, A. Cognitive behaviour therapy. Basics and beyond. Guilford Publication; 2011.Google Scholar
Roediger, E, Stevens, B, Brockman, R. Contextual schema therapy: An integrative approach to personality disorders, emotional dysregulation, and interpersonal functioning. New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
Beck, A. Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. Penguin; 1979.Google Scholar
Leahy, R. Cognitive therapy techniques: A practitioner’s guide. Guilford Publications; 2017.Google Scholar
Arntz, A, Van Genderen, H, Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. Wiley-Blackwell; 2020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, J, Klosko, J, Weishaar, M. Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. Guilford Press; 2003.Google Scholar
Beck, A, Davis, D, Freeman, A. Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. Guilford Publications; 2016.Google Scholar
Beck, J, Cognitive behaviour therapy. Basics and beyond. Guilford Publication; 2020.Google Scholar
Greenberger, D, Padesky, C. Mind over mood: A cognitive therapy treatment manual for clients. Guilford Press; 1995.Google Scholar
Davis, D. Cognitive therapy for personality disorders. In: Leahy, R, Abramson, L, Alloy, L, Arntz, A, Beck, A, eds. Science and practice in cognitive therapy: Foundations, mechanisms, and applications. 1st ed. Guildford Press; 2018, pp. 376402.Google Scholar
Padesky, C. Schema change processes in cognitive therapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 1994;1(5):267–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bögels, SM, van Oppen, PC. Cognitieve therapie: theorie en praktijk. 3rd ed. Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Patterson, C, Alexander, F, French, T. Psychoanalytic therapy. Journal of Social Psychology. 1948;28(1):179.Google Scholar
Lang, P. Imagery in therapy: An information processing analysis of fear. Behavior Therapy. 1977;8(5):862–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Epstein, S. Cognitive-experiential theory: An integrative theory of personality. Oxford University Press; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teasdale, J. Clinically relevant theory: Integrating clinical insight with cognitive science. In Salkovskis, P, ed. Frontiers of cognitive therapy. The Guilford Press; 1996. pp. 2647.Google Scholar
Aafjes-van Doorn, K, Barber, JP. Systematic review of in-session affect experience in cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2017;41(6):807–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, J. Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema focused approach. Professional Resource Press; 1999.Google Scholar
Simpson, S, Arntz, A. Core principles of imagery. In: Heath, G, Startup, H, eds. Creative methods in schema therapy. Routledge; 2020. pp. 93107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Utay, J, Miller, M. Guided imagery as an effective therapeutic technique: A brief review of its history and efficacy research. Journal of Instructional Psychology. 2006;33(1):4043.Google Scholar
Najavits, L. Seeking safety: A treatment manual for PTSD and substance abuse. Guilford Press; 2002Google Scholar
Young, J, Klosko, J, Weishaar, M. Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. Guilford Press; 2003.Google Scholar
Weertman, A, Arntz, A. Effectiveness of treatment of childhood memories in cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A controlled study contrasting methods focusing on the present and methods focusing on childhood memories. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2007;45(9):2133–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Haan, K, Lee, C, Fassbinder, E, et al. Imagery rescripting and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing as treatment for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder from childhood trauma: randomised clinical trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2020;217(5):609–15.Google Scholar
Louis, J, Wood, A, Lockwood, G. Psychometric validation of the Young Parenting Inventory-Revised (YPI-R2): Replication and extension of a commonly used parenting scale in Schema Therapy (ST) research and practice. PloS One. 2018;13(11):e0205605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Jongh, A, ten Broeke, E, Meijer, S. Two method approach: A case conceptualization model in the context of EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 2010;4(1):12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arntz, A. Imagery rescripting as a therapeutic technique: Review of clinical trials, basic studies, and research agenda. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology. 2012;3(2):189208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farrell, J, Reiss, N, Shaw, I. The schema therapy clinician’s guide: A complete resource for building and delivering individual, group and integrated schema mode treatment programs. John Wiley & Sons; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dibbets, P, Arntz, A. Imagery rescripting: Is incorporation of the most aversive scenes necessary? Memory. 2016;24(5):683–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polster, E, Polster, M. Gestalt therapy integrated. Brunner; 1974.Google Scholar
Kellogg, S. Transformational chairwork: Using psychotherapeutic dialogues in clinical practice. Rowman & Littlefield; 2014.Google Scholar
Pugh, M. Cognitive behavioural chairwork: Distinctive features. Routledge; 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roediger, E, Stevens, BA, Brockman, R. Contextual schema therapy: An integrative approach to personality disorders, emotional dysregulation, and interpersonal functioning. New Harbinger Publications; 2018.Google Scholar
Pennebaker, J, Evans, J. Expressive writing: Words that heal. Idyll Arbor. Inc, Enumclaw; 2014.Google Scholar

References

Young, JE, Rygh, J. Young-Rygh Avoidance Inventory (YRAI). Cognitive Therapy Centre; 2003.Google Scholar
Young, JE. Young Compensatory Inventory (YCI). Cognitive Therapy Centre; 1995.Google Scholar
Rijkeboer, MM, Lobbestael, J, Arntz, A, van Genderen, H. (2010). Schema coping inventory. University of Utrecht Press.Google Scholar
Young, J, Klosko, J, Weishaar, M. Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. Guilford Press. 2003.Google Scholar
Van der Winjgaart, R. Imagery rescripting: Theory and practice. Pavilion Publishing & Media; 2021.Google Scholar

References

Young, J, Klosko, J, Weishaar, M. Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. Guilford Press. 2003.Google Scholar
Roediger, E, Stevens, B, Brockman, R. Contextual schema therapy: An integrative approach to personality disorders, emotional dysregulation, and interpersonal functioning. New Harbinger Publications; 2018.Google Scholar
Claassen, A, Broersen, J. Handleiding module schematherapie en de Gezonde volwassene. 1st ed. Springer; 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Claassen, A, Hulsbergen, M. Schematherapie en de Gezonde Volwassene: Positievetechnieken uit de praktijk. 1st ed. Springer; 2015.Google Scholar
Gilbert, P, Tirch, D. Emotional memory, mindfulness and compassion. In Zinn, J. Clinical handbook of mindfulness. Springer; 2009. pp. 99110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neff, K. The role of self-compassion in development: A healthier way to relate to oneself. Human Development. 2009;52(4):211–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolts, R. CFT made simple: A clinician’s guide to practicing compassion-focused therapy. New Harbinger Publications; 2016.Google Scholar
Louis, JP, Wood, AM, Lockwood, G, Ho, MH, Ferguson, E. Positive clinical psychology and Schema Therapy (ST): The development of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ) to complement the Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3). Psychological Assessment. 2018; 30(9):1199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farrell, J, Reiss, N, Shaw, I. The schema therapy clinician’s guide: A complete resource for building and delivering individual, group and integrated schema mode treatment programs. John Wiley & Sons; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

Farrell, J, Shaw, I. Experiencing schema therapy from the inside out: A self-practice/self-reflection workbook for therapists. Guilford Press; 2018.Google Scholar
Ardito, R, Rabellino, D. Therapeutic alliance and outcome of psychotherapy: Historical excursus, measurements, and prospects for research. Frontiers in Psychology. 2011;2:270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Behary, W. The art of empathic confrontation and limit-setting. In Heath, G, Startup, H, eds. Creative methods in schema therapy: Advances and innovation in clinical practice. Routledge; 2020. pp. 227–36.Google Scholar

References

Schacter, D, Addis, D, Buckner, R. Remembering the past to imagine the future: The prospective brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2007;8(9):657–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Libby, L, Shaeffer, E, Eibach, R, Slemmer, J. Picture yourself at the polls. Psychological Science. 2007;18(3):199203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van der Winjgaart, R. Imagery rescripting: Theory and practice. Pavilion Publishing & Media; 2021.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×