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Part III - Business/Commerce

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 March 2021

Jenifer Neils
Affiliation:
American School of Classical Studies, Athens
Dylan K. Rogers
Affiliation:
University of Virginia
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References

Further Reading

Much has changed in the last two decades regarding general views of the ancient Greek economy; a splendid, detailed, and up-to-date vade mecum is Bresson 2016. On the range of occupations in Attika, see Harris 2002, with supplements in Lewis 2020. Taylor 2017 provides an overview of the working population of Athens’ living standards; Lewis 2018, 167–193 discusses the slave population, whilst Brock 1994 discusses the labor of women. Spantidaki 2016 provides a wide-ranging study of textile production. Hasaki 2012 is a useful entry-point to the study of the crafts of potter, smith, and mason, while Sanidas 2013 provides a catalogue of excavated workshops. On masons, Hochscheid 2015 is fundamental. See Vidale 2002 for a detailed study (with many images) of the iconography of artisans, along with Oakley 2020, 47–70 for depictions of workshops on Athenian vases. Acton 2014 contains useful discussion of manufacture but should be used with caution (see the useful review of Rotroff in the Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2015.04.23).

Bibliography

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Further Reading

The classic reference (with the older bibliography and a good plan of Piraeus) is still the Piraeus section of Judeich’s 1931 Topographie von Athen. Garland 1987 offers a useful study of the history and different aspects of the city. Von Eickstedt 1991 gives an exhaustive list of all Piraeus excavations up to 1988. For the Hippodamian planning, see Hoepfner and Schwandner 1994, with a map of the suggested Hippodamian plan and an appendix on the Skeuotheke by Steinhauer. For supplementary remarks on the town plan of Hippodamos, see Gill 2006, Steinhauer 2007, and Longo 2008. The Zea Shipsheds have now been exhaustively published by Lovén 2011 and Lovén and Sapountzis 2019; that can be paired with Pakkanen 2013 and Rankov 2013. The Long Walls are published by Conwell 2008. For the new excavations in the Emporion, see Steinhauer 2012. For the Eetioneia, see Steinhauer 2003. For the important Piraeus stone quarries, see Langdon 2000. On ancient ships and seamanship, the old book of Casson 1971 is still very helpful. On the organization of the Emporion, see Stanley 1976, and for the navy Jordan 1975, Gabrielsen 1994, and Hale 2009, along with Pritchard, Chapter 22 in this volume.

Bibliography

Casson, L. 1971. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Hale, J.R. 2009. Lords of the Sea: The Epic Story of the Athenian Navy and the Birth of Democracy. New York.Google Scholar
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Further Reading

Comprehensive studies of ancient Greek economies, including important historiographic essays, are now available with Scheidel et al. 2007 and Bresson 2016. For the relatively sparse evidence related to Early Iron Age markets and trade at Athens, Papadopoulos 2003. The commercial topography of Athens is discussed by Rotroff 2009. Thompson and Wycherley 1972 remain very useful for the literary evidence regarding the Agora. Townsend 1995 covers the remains along the east side of the Agora, including Hellenistic shops preceding the construction of the Stoa of Attalos. The commercial importance of the Stoa of Attalos is made clear by Kaye 2016. For the wine-selling area to the southeast, see Lawall 2000. On transport amphoras as evidence for Athenian trade, see Lawall 2013 and Tzochev 2016. The tools of commerce such as balance weights and other measuring devices are published in Lang and Crosby 1964; graffiti and dipinti are covered in Lang 1976, with further examples and discussion in Lawall 2000.

Bibliography

Additional resources to accompany this chapter can be found at: www.cambridge.org/NeilsRogers

Bresson, A. 2016. The Making of the Ancient Greek Economy: Institutions, Markets, and Growth in the City-States. Princeton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Further Reading

For a broader and more detailed survey of Athenian coinage, consult Van Alfen 2012, which is excellent and fully up-to-date. For an exploration of what coinage can reveal about the history of fifth-century Athens, see Kallet and Kroll 2020. In addition to the discussions of Rihll 2001 and Hopper 1953, other informative accounts of Athens’ silver mining and processing industries will be found in Mee 2011 and Kakavoyannis 2005 (with an English summary, pp. 331–339). For the many aspects of the Athenian economy, there are illuminating treatments by Kallet 2007, Pritchard 2015, and throughout Bresson 2016.

Bibliography

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Further Reading

Boardman 2001 presents an authoritative if opinionated account of the history, styles, iconography, functions, economics, and techniques of fine Greek pottery (mostly figured). For a diametrically opposed view of the enterprise, see Vickers and Gill 1994. Publications of the Agora excavations offer a cross-section of humbler products: lamps and black-gloss, household, and cooking pottery (Agora vols. 4, 8, 12, 22, 29, and 33) of the seventh to the first century. On a specific Late Archaic assemblage of pottery from the Agora, see Lynch 2011. For figurines, see Thompson 1987 and Uhlenbrock 1990. Winter 1993 provides an introduction to Greek roofing systems down to the end of the Archaic period. Clay preparation, the construction of fine pottery, and the three-stage firing process are explained in Noble 1988 and Schreiber 1999, the latter written from the perspective of an experienced potter. For recent discussions of the size and structure of the Athenian figured pottery industry, see Stissi 2012 and Sapirstein 2013. Peacock 1982, though focused on Roman pottery, provides a model for stages of industrial development that is also applicable to the Athenian industry; Hasaki 2020 examines ancient pottery production, especially at Corinth. For ceramic kilns in ancient Greece see https://atlasgreekkilns.arizona.edu/. Most of the evidence for prices comes from graffiti (Johnston 1979) and the lists of confiscated items in the Attic Stelai (Amyx 1958). For a sample of the heated debate over the value of pottery and the nature and significance of the trade in figured ware, see: Boardman 1988, Vickers and Gill 1994, and Osborne 1996.

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Further Reading

For the functions of sculpture in Athens, see Palagia 2015a, along with Hochscheid 2015 on the production of sculpture and its impact on the Athenian landscape. On bronzes, see Mattusch 1988. For the early marble sculpture in Athens, see Sturgeon in Palagia 2006; Palagia 2010; Sturgeon in Palagia 2019. For Classical sculpture in Athens, see Palagia in Palagia 2006. For Athenian sculpture in Parian marble, see Palagia 2000. For the quarries on Mt. Penteli, see Korres 2000 and 2001. For workshops of marble sculptors in the Agora, see Lawton 2006 and Tsakirgis 2015. For reliefs, see Clairmont 1993, Lawton 1995a, and Comella 2002.

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Additional resources to accompany this chapter can be found at: www.cambridge.org/NeilsRogers

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