Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gvh9x Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-23T13:11:17.808Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

10 - A Global Human Rights Approach to Medical Artificial Intelligence

from Part III - Knowledge, Risk and Control

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 September 2022

Marcelo Corrales Compagnucci
Affiliation:
University of Copenhagen
Michael Lowery Wilson
Affiliation:
University of Turku, Finland
Mark Fenwick
Affiliation:
Kyushu University, Japan
Nikolaus Forgó
Affiliation:
Universität Wien, Austria
Till Bärnighausen
Affiliation:
Universität Heidelberg
Get access

Summary

The use and development of algorithms in health care, including machine learning, contributes to the discovery of better treatments for patients and offers promising perspectives in the fight against cancer and other diseases. Yet, algorithms are not a neutral health product since they are programmed by humans, with the risk of propagating human rights infringements. In the medical area, human rights impact assessments need to be conducted for applications involving AI. Apart from offering a consistent and transversal substantive approach to AI, human rights law, and in particular the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, would allow the targeting of all stakeholders, including the corporations developing health care algorithms. Such an approach would establish a chain of duties and responsibilities bringing more transparency and consistency in the overall process of developing AI and its later uses. Although this approach would not solve all AI challenges, it would offer a framework for discussion with all relevant actors, including vulnerable populations. An increase in human rights education of medical doctors and data scientists, and further collaboration at the initial stages of algorithm development would greatly contribute to the creation of a human rights culture in the techno-science space.

Type
Chapter
Information
AI in eHealth
Human Autonomy, Data Governance and Privacy in Healthcare
, pp. 277 - 308
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Access Now, ‘Human Rights in the Age of Artificial Intelligence’ November 2018, www.accessnow.org/cms/assets/uploads/2018/11/AI-and-Human-Rights.pdfGoogle Scholar
Ala-Pietilä, P, ‘Towards Trustworthy AI – Ethics & Competitiveness Go Hand-in-Hand’ 2019, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/blogposts/towards-trustworthy-ai-ethics-competitiveness-go-hand-hand, accessed 21 May 2020.Google Scholar
Allison-Hope, D and Hodge, M, ‘As Artificial Intelligence Progresses, What Does Responsibility Look Like?’ OpenGlobalRights, www.openglobalrights.org/as-artificial-intelligence-progresses-what-does-real-responsibility-look-like/, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Aurey, X, ‘La transformation du corps humain en ressource biomédicale. Etude de droit international et européen’ PhD thesis, Université Panthéon-Assas, 2015.Google Scholar
Azoulay, A, ‘Vers une éthique de l’intelligence artificielle’ www.un.org/fr/chronicle/article/vers-une-ethique-de-lintelligence-artificielle.Google Scholar
Barocas, S and Selbst, AD, ‘Big Data’s Disparate Impact’ (2016) 104(3) California Law Review 671.Google Scholar
Besson, S, ‘Sovereignty, International Law and Democracy’ (2011) 22(2) European Journal of International Law 373.Google Scholar
Blasimme, A and Vayena, E, ‘The Ethics of AI in Biomedical Research, Patient Care, and Public Health’ in Dubber, MD, Pascuale, F and Das, S (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI (Oxford University Press 2020).Google Scholar
Borgesius, FJZ, ‘Discrimination, Artificial Intelligence, and Algorithmic Decision-Making’ Council of Europe, 2018, https://rm.coe.int/discrimination-artificial-intelligenceand-algorithmic-decision-making/1680925d73, accessed 24 June 2021.Google Scholar
Borrillo, D, ‘La République des experts dans la construction des lois: le cas de la bioéthique’ (2011) 14 Histoire&Politique. Politique, culture, société.Google Scholar
Brillat, M, Le principe de non-discrimination à l’épreuve des rapports entre les droits européens (Institut Universitaire Varenne-Collection des Thèses 2016).Google Scholar
Challen, R and others, ‘Artificial Intelligence, Bias and Clinical Safety’ (2019) 28 BMJ Quality & Safety 231. doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2018-008370Google Scholar
Claudot, F, Van Baaren-Baudin, AJ, Chastonay, P, ‘Enseignement de l’éthique et des Droits de l’Homme en Europe’ (2006) 18(1) Santé Publique 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Commission Nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL) and Défenseur des droits (France), ‘Algorithmes: prévenir l’automatisation des discriminations’ (31 May 2020), www.defenseurdesdroits.fr/fr/rapports/2020/05/algorithmes-prevenir-lautomatisation-des-discriminations.Google Scholar
Committee of Experts on Internet Intermediaries (MSI-NET), ‘Algorithms and Human Rights: Study on the Human Rights Dimensions of Automated Data Processing Techniques and Possible Regulatory Implications’ Council of Europe study DGI (2017) 12, 2017, https://rm.coe.int/algorithms-and-human-rights-en-rev/16807956b5, accessed 4 February 2022.Google Scholar
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), ‘The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health’ General Comment No. 14, UN Doc. No. E/C.12/2000/4, 11 August 2000, https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/425041, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Cossins, D, ‘Discriminating Algorithms: 5 Times AI Showed Prejudice’ New Scientist, 27 April 2018, www.newscientist.com/article/2166207-discriminating-algorithms-5-times-ai-showed-prejudice/, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Couldry, N and Mejias, U, ‘Data Colonialism: Rethinking Big Data’s Relation to the Contemporary Subject’ (2019) 20(4) Television and New Media 336–49.Google Scholar
Crawford, J, Democracy in International Law: Inaugural Lecture Delivered 5 March 1993 (Cambridge University Press 1994).Google Scholar
Council of Europe, Committee of Experts in Human Rights Dimensions of Automated Data Processing and Different Forms of AI (MSI-AUT), ‘Addressing the Impacts of Algorithms on HR’, Draft recommendation of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the human rights impacts of algorithmic systems (2018) https://rm.coe.int/draft-recommendation-of-the-committee-of-ministers-to-states-on-the-hu/168095eecf, accessed 4 February 2022.Google Scholar
Dalton-Brown, S, ‘The Ethics of Medical AI and the Physician-Patient Relationship’ (2020) 29(1) Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 115.Google Scholar
Erdman, JN, ‘Human Rights Education in Patient Care’ (2017) 38(14) Public Health Review 1.Google Scholar
European Commission, ‘Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2021 Laying Down Harmonized Rules on Artificial Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence Act) and Amending Certain Union Legislative Acts’ 2021 COM/2021/206 final, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52021PC0206Google Scholar
European Commission, ‘White Paper on Artificial Intelligence – A European Approach to Excellence and Trust’ (Brussels, 19 February 2020) COM(2020) 65 final, https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/commission-white-paper-artificial-intelligence-feb2020_en.pdf.Google Scholar
European Parliament, ‘Covid-19 Tracing Apps: Ensuring Privacy and Use Across Borders’ 1 December 2020, www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20200429STO78174/covid-19-tracing-apps-ensuring-privacy-and-data-protection, accessed 21 May 2020. European Parliament, ‘Resolution of 10 March 2021 with Recommendations to the Commission on Corporate Due Diligence and Corporate Accountability’ (2020/2129(INL)), OJ C 474, 24.11.2021, pp. 11–40, https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/commission-white-paper-artificial-intelligence-feb2020_en.pdfGoogle Scholar
Evans, JH, Playing God: Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate (University of Chicago Press 2002).Google Scholar
Expert Group on Liability and New Technologies – New Technologies Formation, ‘Liability for Artificial Intelligence and Other Emerging Digital Technologies’ 2019, https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=63199, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Fefegha, A, ‘Racial Bias and Gender Bias Examples in AI systems’ The Comuzi Journal, 2 September 2018, https://medium.com/thoughts-and-reflections/racial-bias-and-gender-bias-examples-in-ai-systems-7211e4c166a1, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Gerards, J and Xenidis, R, ‘Algorithmic Discrimination in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Gender Equality and Non-discrimination Law – A Special Report’ (2020) www.equalitylaw.eu/publications, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Gillis, TB and Spiess, JL, ‘Big Data and Discrimination’ (2019) 86(2) The University of Chicago Law Review 459.Google Scholar
Hacker, P, ‘Teaching Fairness to Artificial Intelligence: Existing and Novel Strategies against Algorithmic Discrimination under EU Law’ (2018) 55(4) Common Market Law Review 1143–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
High-Level Expert Group on AI, ‘Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI’, 8 April 2019, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/ethics-guidelines-trustworthy-ai, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, AL, ‘Where Fairness Fails: Data, Algorithms and the Limits of Antidiscrimination Discourse’ (2019) 22 (7) Information, Communication & Society 900.Google Scholar
Jean, A, De l’autre côté de la Machine – Voyage d’une scientifique au pays des algorithmes (L’observatoire 2020).Google Scholar
Jobin, A, Lenca, M and Vayena, E, ‘The Global Landscape of AI Ethics Guidelines’ (2019) 1 Nature Machine Learning 389–99.Google Scholar
Kaye, D, ‘Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression’ A/73/348 (2018).Google Scholar
Kriebitz, A, Lütge, C, ‘Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights: A Business Ethical Assessment’ (2020) 5(1) Business and Human Rights Journal 84.Google Scholar
Lebret, A, ‘The European Court of Human Rights and the Framing of Reproductive Issues’ (2020) 18 Droits Fondamentaux, www.crdh.fr/revue/n-18-2020/the-european-court-of-human-rights-and-the-framing-of-reproductive-rights/Google Scholar
Lebret, A and Minssen, T, ‘Digital Health, Artificial Intelligence and Accessibility to Health Care in Denmark’ (2021) 1 European Human Rights Law Review 39.Google Scholar
Lehr, D and Ohm, P, ‘Playing with the Data: What Legal Scholars Should Learn About Machine Learning’ (2017) 51 (653) UCDL Rev., 653–717.Google Scholar
Livingston, S and Risse, M, ‘The Future Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Human Rights’ (2019) 33(2) Ethics and International Affairs 141–58.Google Scholar
Lloyd Booz, K and Hamilton, A, ‘Bias Amplification in Artificial Intelligence Systems’ paper presented at AAAI FSS-18: Artificial Intelligence in Government and Public Sector, Arlington, VA, 18–20 October 2018, https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1809/1809.07842.pdfGoogle Scholar
Lougarre, C, ‘The Right to Health: Legal Content Through Supranational Monitoring’ PhD thesis, University College London, 2016, https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1474052/, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Martin-Chenut, K, ‘Droit international et démocratie’ (2007) 4(220) Diogène 36.Google Scholar
Mayer Mckinney, S and others, ‘International Evaluation of an AI System for Breast Cancer Screening’ (2020) 577(7788) Nature 89–94.Google Scholar
McGregor, L, Murray, D and Ng, V, ‘International Human Rights Law as a Framework for Algorithmic Accountability’ (2019) 68(2) International and Comparative Law Quarterly 309.Google Scholar
McKenzie, KC, Mishori, R and Ferdowsian, H, ‘Twelve Tips for Incorporating the Study of Human Rights into Medical Education’ (2020) 42(8) Medical Teacher 871.Google Scholar
Minssen, T and others, ‘Regulatory Responses to Medical Machine Learning’ (2020) 7(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences, https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsaa002Google Scholar
Mittelstadt, B and others, ‘The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate’ (2016) 3(2) Big Data & Society https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2053951716679679, accessed 4 February 2022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morley, J and others, ‘The Ethics of AI in Health Care: A Mapping Review’ (2020) 260(1) Social Science and Medicine 113172. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113172Google Scholar
Narayanan, A, ‘21 Fairness Definitions and Their Politics’ tutorial presented at the Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency, 23 February 2018. Tutorial at www.youtube.com/watch?v=jIXIuYdnyykGoogle Scholar
Newham, R and others, ‘Human Rights Education in Patient Care: A Literature Review and Critical Discussion’ (2021) 28(2) Nursing Ethics 190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
OEIGWG Chairmanship, ‘Legally Binding Instrument to Regulate, in International Human Rights Law, the Activities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises’ second revised draft, 6 August 2020, www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/WGTransCorp/Session6/OEIGWG_Chair-Rapporteur_second_revised_draft_LBI_on_TNCs_and_OBEs_with_respect_to_Human_Rights.pdf, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
ONU, Chronique, Audrey Azoulay, ‘Vers une éthique de l’intelligence artificielle’ www.un.org/fr/chronicle/article/vers-une-ethique-de-lintelligence-artificielle, accessed 21 May 2020.Google Scholar
Parikh, RB, Teeple, S, Navathe, AS, ‘Addressing Bias in Artificial Intelligence in Health Care’ (2019) 322(24) The Journal of the American Medical Association 2377.Google Scholar
Piper, K, ‘Exclusive: Google Cancels AI Ethics Board in Response to Outcry’ Vox, 4 April 2019 www.vox.com/future-perfect/2019/4/4/18295933/google-cancels-ai-ethics-board, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Potter, VR, ‘Bioethics: The Science of Survival’ (1970) 14(1) Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 127–53.Google Scholar
Price, WN, ‘Medical AI and Contextual Bias’ (2019) 33(1) Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 66.Google Scholar
Quach, K, ‘MIT Apologizes, Permanently Pulls Offline Huge Dataset that Taught AI Systems to Use Misogynistic Slurs’ The Register, 1 July 2020, www.theregister.com/2020/07/01/mit_dataset_removed/, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Ram, N and Gray, D, ‘Mass Surveillance in the Age of COVID-19’ (2020) 7(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences, https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsaa023.Google Scholar
Raso, FA and others, ‘Artificial Intelligence & Human Rights: Opportunities & Risks’ Berkman Klein Center research publication no 2018-6, 25 September 2018, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3259344, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Schmidt, N and Stephens, B, ‘An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Solutions to the Problems of Algorithmic Discrimination’ (2019) 73(2) Quarterly Report 130.Google Scholar
Schuett, J, ‘A Legal Definition of AI’ Cornell University, 22 August 2021, https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.01095, accessed 24 June 2021.Google Scholar
Schwarz, EC, ‘Human vs. Machine: A Framework of Responsibilities and Duties of Transnational Corporations for Respecting Human Rights in the Use of Artificial Intelligence’ (2019) 58(1) Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 232, www.jtl.columbia.edu/journal-articles/human-vs-machine-a-framework-of-responsibilities-and-duties-of-transnational-corporations-for-respecting-human-rights-in-the-use-of-artificial-intelligence, accessed 1 May 2021Google Scholar
Short, E, ‘It turns out Amazon’s AI hiring tool discriminated against women’ Silicon Republic (11 October 2018) www.siliconrepublic.com/careers/amazon-ai-hiring-tool-women-discrimination.Google Scholar
Sloan, RH and Warner, R, ‘Beyond Bias: Artificial Intelligence and Social Justice’ (2020) 24(1) Virginia Journal of Law and Technology 1.Google Scholar
Tobin, J, The Right to Health in International Law (Oxford University Press 2012).Google Scholar
‘Top Artificial Intelligence Companies in Healthcare to Keep an Eye on’, The Medical Futurist (21 January 2020), https://medicalfuturist.com/top-artificial-intelligence-companies-in-healthcare/#Google Scholar
‘Toronto Declaration: Protecting the Rights to Equality and Non-discrimination in Machine Learning Systems’ RightsCon Toronto, 16 May 2018, www.accessnow.org/the-toronto-declaration-protecting-the-rights-to-equality-and-non-discrimination-in-machine-learning-systems, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
Tréguier, F, ‘The State and Digital Surveillance in Times of the Covid-19 Pandemic’ Science Po Center for International Studies, 1 June 2020, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/en/content/state-and-digital-surveillance-times-covid-19-pandemic, accessed 17 February 2021.Google Scholar
Tzimas, T, ‘The Need for an International Treaty for AI from the Perspective of Human Rights’ (2019) 4(1) Scientia Moralitas Journal 73.Google Scholar
UNESCO, ‘Draft Text of a Recommendation on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence’ 25 June 2021, https://en.unesco.org/artificial-intelligence/ethics, accessed 21 May 2020.Google Scholar
UNESCO, ‘Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights’ General Conference of UNESCO, 33rd sess. (adopted19 October 2005), https://en.unesco.org/themes/ethics-science-and-technology/bioethics-and-human-rights.Google Scholar
UNGA, Human Rights Council, ‘Elaboration of an International Legally Binding Instrument on Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Respect to Human Rights’, A/HRC/RES/26/9, 14 July 2014, https://undocs.org/A/HRC/RES/26/9, accessed 24 June 2021.Google Scholar
UNGA, ‘Report of the Working Group on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises’, A/73/163, 16 July 2018, https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N18/224/87/PDF/N1822487.pdf?OpenElementGoogle Scholar
UN Office of the High Commissioner, UN Human Rights Business and Human Rights Technology Project (B-Tech): Applying the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights to digital technologies, November 2019. Updates on the B-Tech Project may be found at https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Business/Pages/B-TechProject.aspx.Google Scholar
UN OHCHR, ‘Tackling Discrimination Against Lesbian, Gay, Bi, Trans, & Intersex People: Standards of Conduct for Business’ 2017, www.unfe.org/standards/, accessed 25 June 2021.Google Scholar
UN OHCHR, ‘A Human Rights-Based Approach to Data: Leaving No One Behind in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’ 2018, www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/HRIndicators/GuidanceNoteonApproachtoData.pdf, accessed 24 June 2021.Google Scholar
Vinuesa, R and others, ‘The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals’ (2020) 11(233) Nature Communications www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-14108-y, accessed 24 June 2021.Google Scholar
Wachter, S, Mittelstadt, B and Russell, C, ‘Why Fairness Cannot Be Automated: Bridging the Gap Between EU Non-Discrimination Law and AI’ 2020, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3547922, accessed 1 May 2021.Google Scholar
WHO, ‘Contact Tracing in the Context of COVID-19: Interim Guidance’ 10 May 2020, https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/332049, accessed 21 May 2020.Google Scholar
WHO, ‘Ethical Considerations to Guide the Use of Digital Proximity Tracking Technologies for COVID-19 Contact Tracing’ interim guidance, 28 May 2020, www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Ethics_Contact_tracing_apps-2020.1, accessed 17 February 2021.Google Scholar
WHO, ‘Global Strategy on Digital Health 2020–2025’ 2021, www.who.int/docs/default-source/documents/gs4dhdaa2a9f352b0445bafbc79ca799dce4d.pdf, accessed 4 February 2022.Google Scholar
WHO, ‘Surveillance Strategies for COVID-19 Human Infection’ interim guidance, 10 May 2020, https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/332051, accessed 21 May 2020.Google Scholar
WHO, ‘What You Need to Know About Digital Health Systems’ e-health, 2019, www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/e-health/news/news/2019/2/what-you-need-to-know-about-digital-health-systems, accessed 24 June 2021.Google Scholar
WHO, ‘WHO Guidelines on Ethical Issues in Public Health Surveillance’ 2017, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255721/9789241512657-eng.pdf?sequence=1, accessed 7 May 2020.Google Scholar
WHO Regional Office for Europe, ‘Future of Digital Health Systems: Report on the WHO Symposium on the Future of Digital Health Systems in the European Region’ 6–8 February 2019, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/329032/9789289059992-eng.pdf, accessed 24 June 2021.Google Scholar
World Medical Assembly, ‘Resolution on the Inclusion of Medical Ethics and Human Rights in the Curriculum of Medical Schools World-wide’ adopted by the 51st WMA General Assembly, Tel Aviv, Oct 1999, revised by the 66th WMA General Assembly, Moscow, October 2015, www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-resolution-on-the-inclusion-of-medical-ethics-and-human-rights-in-the-curriculum-of-medical-schools-world-wide/#:~:text=The%20WMA%20believes%20that%20medical,graduate%20and%20continuing%20medical%20education accessed 24 June 2021.Google Scholar
Yeung, K, ‘Responsibility and AI’ Council of Europe study DGI (2019) 05, Expert Committee in Human Rights Dimensions of Automated Data Processing and Different Forms of Artificial Intelligence (MSI-AUT), 2019, https://rm.coe.int/responsability-and-ai-en/168097d9c5, accessed 4 February 2022.Google Scholar
Yeung, K, Howes, A and Pogrebna, G, ‘AI Governance by Human-Rights Centered Design, Deliberation, and Oversight: An End to Ethics Washing’ in Dubber, MD, Pascuale, F and Das, S (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI (Oxford University Press 2020).Google Scholar
Zenios, SA and others, ‘Evidence-Based Organ Allocation’ (1999) 107(1) The American Journal of Medicine 52.Google ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×