Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gvh9x Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-23T15:05:57.119Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part II - New Deal, New Methodologies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 March 2022

Eve Dunbar
Vassar College, New York
Ayesha K. Hardison
University of Kansas
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Abramson, Doris E. Negro Playwrights in the American Theatre, 1925–1959. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
Adams, Katherine H., and Keene, Michael L. Women, Art, and the New Deal. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2016.Google Scholar
Attenborough, Michael. “My Search for the Lost Voice of Black America,” The Guardian, May 10, 2007, 28.Google Scholar
Avery, Laurence G. A Paul Green Reader. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Baraka, Amiri. “Afro American Literature and Class Struggle.” Black American Literature Forum 14, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 814.Google Scholar
Baraka, AmiriForeword.” In Black Theatre U.S.A: The Recent Period 1935–Today, eds. Hatch, James V. and Shine, Ted, xixiv. New York: Free Press, 1996.Google Scholar
Baraka, Amiri Selected Plays and Prose of Amiri Baraka/LeRoi Jones. New York: Morrow, 1979.Google Scholar
Berzon, Judith R. Neither White nor Black: The Mulatto Character in American Fiction. New York: New York University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
Brasmer, William, and Consolo, Dominick, eds. Black Drama: An Anthology. Columbus, OH: Merrill, 1970.Google Scholar
Brown, Lorraine. Liberty Deferred and Other Living Newspapers of the 1930s. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
Carby, Hazel. “Policing the Black Woman’s Body in an Urban Context,” Critical Inquiry, 18, no. 4 (Summer 1992): 738755.Google Scholar
Clark, VèVè. “Restaging Langston Hughes’ Scottsboro Limited.” In Black Scholar, July–August 1979, 6269; reprinted in Conversations with Amiri Baraka, ed. Reilly, Charles, 157167. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994.Google Scholar
Clarke, Cheryl. “After Mecca”: Black Women and the Black Arts Movement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Craig, E. Quita. Black Drama of the Federal Theatre Era: Beyond the Formal Horizon. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980.Google Scholar
Dickinson-Carr, Darryl. “African American Literature and the Great Depression.” In The Cambridge History of African American Literature, eds. Graham, Maryemma and Ward, Jerry W., Jr., 288310. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Dossett, Kate. “Staging the Garveyite Home: Black Masculinity, Failure, and Redemption in Theodore Ward’s Big White Fog.” African American Review 43, no. 4 (Winter 2009): 557576.Google Scholar
Dossett, Kate Radical Black Theatre in the New Deal. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2020.Google Scholar
ElamJr., Harry. “The Politics of Black Masculinity in Theodore Browne’s Natural Man, 1937.” In Experiments in Democracy: Interracial and Cross-Cultural Exchange in American Theatre, 1912–1945, eds. Black, Cheryl and Shandell, Jonathan, 126146. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
ElamJr., HarryPost-World War II African American Theatre,” in The Oxford Handbook of American Drama, eds. Richards, Jeffrey H. and Nathans, Heather S., 375391. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Federal Theatre Project: A Catalog-Calendar of Productions, The. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Flanagan, Hallie. Arena. 1940. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1967.Google Scholar
Fraden, Rena. Blueprints for a Black Federal Theatre 1935–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
“Frank Wilson to Stage Play,” New York Amsterdam News, October 3, 1936, 10.Google Scholar
Gassner, John, ed. Twenty Best Plays of the American Theatre. New York: Crown, 1939.Google Scholar
Gassner, John, and Barnes, Clive. Fifty Best Plays of the American Theater. New York: Crown, 1969.Google Scholar
Gayle, Addison. The Way of the New World: The Black Novel in America. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1975.Google Scholar
Gilbert, Paul T. “Race Problem Theme of Big White Fog.” Herald & Examiner, April 8, 1938. In Big White Fog Production Notebook, Production Records, Box 983, FTP-LOC.Google Scholar
Gordon, Michelle Yvonne. “The Chicago Renaissance.” In A Companion to African American Literature, ed. Jarrett, Gene Andrew, 271285. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 2010.Google Scholar
Griffin, Robert, “The Negro Theatre in Durham,” Backstage: A Publication of the North Carolina Federal Theatre Projects 2, no. 7 (n.d.): 57.Google Scholar
Hartman, Saidiya. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.Google Scholar
Hatch, James V., ed. Black Theater U.S.A.: 45 Plays by Black Americans, 1847–1974, New York: Free Press, 1974.Google Scholar
Hatch, James V., and Shine, Ted, eds. Black Theatre U.S.A.: Plays by African Americans: The Early Period 1847–1938, Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Free Press, 1996.Google Scholar
Hatch, James V., and Shine, Ted Black Theatre U.S.A.: Plays by African Americans: The Recent Period 1935–Today, Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Free Press, 1996.Google Scholar
Henderson, Mary C., ed. “Federal Theatre Project Records at George Mason University.” Performing Arts Resources 6 (1980): 1315.Google Scholar
Hill, Errol. “The Revolutionary Tradition in Black Drama.” Theatre Journal 38, no. 4 (December 1986): 408426.Google Scholar
Hill, Errol G., and Hatch, James V., eds. A History of African American Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Horne, Gerald. Race Woman: The Lives of Shirley Graham Du Bois. New York: New York University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
“In Our Mail: Coleman at Bay,” Boston Chronicle, October 24, 1936, 4.Google Scholar
Jarrett, Gene, Deans and Truants: Race and Realism in American Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.Google Scholar
Jones, LeRoi /Baraka, Amiri. “The Myth of a Negro Literature,” first published in Saturday Review, April 20, 1963.Google Scholar
Kern, Douglas. “Killing in the Name of the Struggle: Amiri Baraka’s Revolutionary Theatre,” PhD thesis, University of York, 2014.Google Scholar
King, Woodie, and Milner, Ron, eds. Black Drama Anthology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
Lewis, Lloyd. “Pathos of Modern Negro Life Shown in Play a Negro Tragedy.” Daily News, April 8, 1938. In Big White Fog Production Notebook, Production Records, Box 983, FTP-LOC.Google Scholar
Locke, Alain. “The Saving Grace of Realism.” Opportunity 13 (January 1934): 8–11, 30, 48–51.Google Scholar
Locke, Alain, and Gregory, Montgomery, eds. Plays of Negro Life: A Source-Book of Native American Drama 1927. Westport, CT: Negro University Press, 1970.Google Scholar
Mantle, Burns, and Gassner, John, eds. A Treasury of the Theatre: An Anthology of Great Plays from Aeschylus to Eugene O’Neill. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1939.Google Scholar
Moore, Cecelia. The Federal Theatre Project in the American South: The Carolina Playmakers and the Quest for American Drama. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2017.Google Scholar
Morgan, Stacy I. Rethinking Social Realism: African American Art and Literature, 1930–1953. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Musher, Sharon Ann. Democratic Art: The New Deal’s Influence on American Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.Google Scholar
Nadler, Paul. “Liberty Censored: Black Living Newspapers of the Federal Theatre Project.” African American Review 29, no. 4 (1995): 615622.Google Scholar
Neal, Larry. “The Black Arts Movement.” Drama Review 12, no. 4 (Summer 1968): 2839.Google Scholar
New Deal Agencies and Black America in the 1930s. Reel 9. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984.Google Scholar
“News of the Stage,” New York Times, September 25, 1936, 21.Google Scholar
O’Connor, John, and Brown, Lorraine, eds. The Federal Theatre Project: Free, Adult, Uncensored, London: Eyre Methuen, 1980.Google Scholar
“Our Federal Theatre,” Boston Chronicle, October 10, 1936, 4.Google Scholar
Patterson, Lindsay. Black Theater: A 20th Century Collection of the Work of Its Best Playwrights. New York: Dodd Mead, 1971.Google Scholar
Payton, Lew. Did Adam Sin? and Other Stories of Negro Life in Comedy-Drama and Sketches. Los Angeles: Lew Payton, 1937.Google Scholar
Peterson, Bernard L. Early Black American Playwrights and Dramatic Writers. New York/London: Greenwood Press, 1990.Google Scholar
Peterson, Bernard L. The African American Theatre Directory, 1816–1960. Westport, CT/London: Greenwood Press, 1997.Google Scholar
Redd, Tina. “Birmingham’s Federal Theater Project Negro Unit: The Administration of Race.” In African American Performance and Theater History, eds. Elam, Harry J. Jr. and Krasner, David, 271287. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Retman, Sonnet. Real Folks: Race and Genre in the Great Depression. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Roses, Lorraine Elena. Black Bostonians and the Politics of Culture 1930–1940. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2017.Google Scholar
Rowley, Hazel. Life and Times of Richard Wright. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 2001.Google Scholar
Sklaroff, Lauren Rebecca. Black Culture and the New Deal: The Quest for Civil Rights in the Roosevelt Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Shockley, Evie. Renegade Politics: Black Aesthetics and Formal Innovation in African American Poetry. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2011.Google Scholar
Smethurst, James Edward. The Black Arts Movement: Literary Nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Smith, David Lionel. “Amiri Baraka and the Politics of Popular Culture.” In Politics and the Muse: Studies in the Politics of Recent American Literature, ed. Sorkin, Adam J., 222238, Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
Smith, David LionelThe Black Arts Movement and Its Critics.” American Literary History 3, no. 1 (March 1991): 93110.Google Scholar
Turner, Darwin T. Black Drama in America: An Anthology. Greenwich, CT; Fawcett Publications, 1971.Google Scholar
Vactor, Vanita Marian “A History of the Chicago Federal Theatre Project Negro Unit, 1935–1939.” PhD thesis, New York University, 1998.Google Scholar
“Vassar Granted Special Fund by Rockefeller Foundation,” Vassar College News, November 4, 1939.Google Scholar
Wald, Alan. “Theodore Ward.” In Writers of the Black Chicago Renaissance, ed. Tracey, Steven C., 320340. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Wright, Richard. Black Boy: American Hunger, A Record of Childhood and Youth. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.Google Scholar
Federal Theatre Project Collection Online Finding Aid (accessed May 31, 2021)Google Scholar
Green’s, Paul Pulitzer Prizewinning drama In Abraham’s Bosom receiving a 2016 staged reading at the University of North Carolina to celebrate the centenary anniversary of the Pulitzer PrizeGoogle Scholar
Stanford Report, February 5, 2003 (accessed May 31, 2021)Google Scholar
Michelle Gordon’s talk at Emory University, April 2016 (accessed January 10, 2018)Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats