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Prairie groundcherry [Physalis hederifolia (A. Gray) var. fendleri (A. Gray) Cronquist] is an invasive perennial weed with the potential to become a significant summer weed across 409 million hectares in Australia. Current management practices do not provide effective control of established populations. A better understanding of the seed biology is needed to effectively manage this weed. A series of field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine plant fecundity, soil seedbank longevity, and the factors that affect seed germination. Physalis hederifolia has the capacity to produce 66 to 86 berries plant−1, 51 to 74 seeds berry−1, and approximately 4,500 seeds plant−1, with the seeds potentially able to persist in the soil seedbank for 20 yr if buried in an intact dry berry pod. The bare-seed component of the soil seedbank can be virtually exhausted within 3 yr if cultivation is minimized to avoid burial of seed. Optimal temperature for germination is diurnal fluctuations of 15 C within the temperature range of 10 and 30 C. Increasing osmotic stress levels reduced the germination under all temperature regimes, with less than 6% germination occurring at −0.96 MPa. Physalis hederifolia seed germination was not significantly affected by substrate pH 4 to 10 or salt levels less than 160 mM, while the germination was significantly reduced at NaCl concentrations above 160 mM. These results suggest that P. hederifolia can adapt to a range of substrate conditions. Stopping seed set, avoiding grazing plants with viable seeds, and minimizing seed burial in the soil are some effective strategies to control this weed.
Three collated geochemical surveys of surface water in the Clyde catchment have established the spatial variability in water composition, primarily under baseflow conditions. The waters are broadly pH-neutral to alkaline (maximum pH 8.7) in the lowlands, but mildly acidic in uplands on the catchment periphery. Electrical conductance is relatively high in lowland streams (maximum 8320μgL–1), with lower values in the uplands. Dissolved chromium (Cr; <0.05–971μgL–1) and lead (Pb; <0.05–19.4μgL–1) are of importance due to recognised pollution sources within the catchment. High aqueous Cr concentrations (>5μgL–1) are recorded in urban areas associated with the disposal of alkaline industrial chromite ore processing residue. Under such conditions, Cr probably occurs as Cr(VI). Numerous relatively high Pb values occur in the upland and urban areas. These are likely to be associated with a combination of soil reactions, diffuse pollution and contamination from Pb mineralisation/mining. Pb has a stronger correlation with water pH than with stream sediment Pb content, suggesting that pH has a greater control on Pb mobility than host-rock Pb. Exceedances of water-quality standards are <1% for both Cr and Pb across the catchment. Absolute exceedances are more extreme for Cr than for Pb, highlighting the scale of the Cr pollution problem for urban surface water within the catchment.
Sesbania [Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers.] is a problematic emerging weed species in Australian cotton-farming systems. However, globally, no information is available regarding its seed germination biology, and better understanding will help in devising superior management strategies to prevent further infestations. Laboratory and glasshouse studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of various environmental factors such as light, temperature, salt, osmotic and pH stress, and burial depth on germination and emergence of two Australian biotypes of S. cannabina. Freshly harvested seeds of both biotypes possessed physical dormancy. A boiling-water scarification treatment (100±2 C) of 5-min duration was the optimum treatment to overcome this dormancy. Once dormancy was broken, the Dalby biotype exhibited a greater germination (93%) compared with the St George biotype (87%). The nondormant seeds of both biotypes showed a neutral photoblastic response to light and dark conditions, with germination marginally improved (6%) under illumination. Maximum germination of both biotypes occurred under an alternating temperature regime of 30/20 and 35/25 C and under constant temperatures of 32 or 35 C, with no germination at 8 or 11 C. Seed germination of both biotypes decreased linearly from 87% to 14% with an increase in moisture stress from 0.0 to −0.8 MPa, with no germination possible at −1.0 MPa. There was a gradual decline in germination for both biotypes when imbibed in a range of salt solutions of 25 to 250 mM, with a 50% reduction in germination occurring at 150 mM. Both biotypes germinated well under a wide range of pH values (4.0 to 10.0), with maximum germination (94%) at pH 9.0. The greatest emergence rate of the Dalby (87%) and St George (78%) biotypes was recorded at a burial depth of 1.0 cm, with no emergence at 16.0 cm. Deep tillage seems to be the best management strategy to stop S. cannabina’s emergence and further infestation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields. The findings of this study will be helpful to cotton agronomists in devising effective, sustainable, and efficient integrated weed management strategies for the control of S. cannabina in cotton cropping lands.
The following review covers current and classical knowledge regarding the positive effects of organic acids on phytase activity and phytate P availability in broiler chickens. Despite the improvements achieved for phytase stability under gastrointestinal conditions, intrinsic characteristics of phytic acid, dietary components and the digestive tract favour phytate formation and, consequently, inhibit the degradation of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates by phytase. Organic acids, more frequently citric acid, have been shown to decrease phytate establishment and enhance phytase activity. When supplemented alone, citric acid increased P retention by 16 to 34% and phytate P retention by 105% in broilers. When combined with phytase, 3.27% better tibia ash has been reported. From the available data, it appears that combined use of phytases and organic acids deserves greater consideration in modern poultry nutrition.
The hydrated carbonate mineral ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) is thermodynamically unstable at all known conditions on Earth. Regardless, ikaite has been found in marine sediments, as tufa columns and in sea ice. The reason for these occurrences remains unknown. However, cold temperatures (<6°C), high pH and the presence of Mg2+ and SO42– in these settings have been suggested as factors that promote ikaite formation. Here we show that Mg concentration and pH are primary controls of ikaite precipitation at 5°C. In our experiments a sodium carbonate solution was mixed with seawater at a temperature of 5°C and at a constant rate. To test the effect of Mg2+ and SO42– we used synthetic seawater which allowed us to remove these elements from the seawater. The pH was controlled by different ratios of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in the carbonate solution. We found that ikaite precipitated when both seawater and synthetic seawater from which SO4 had been removed were used in the experiments. However, ikaite did not precipitate in experiments conducted with synthetic seawater from which Mg had been removed. In these experiments, calcite precipitated instead of ikaite. By varying the Mg concentration of the synthetic seawater and the pH of the sodium carbonate solution, we constructed a kinetic stability diagram for ikaite and calcite as a function of Mg concentration and pH. One possible explanation of our finding is that Mg2+ inhibits calcite nucleation and thereby allows metastable ikaite to form instead.
The temperature and pH of the contents of the reticulorumen of cattle can be monitored using sensors placed in a rumen bolus. In this research communication we test the hypothesis that these measurements can be used as a predictor of the likelihood of reproductive success. The study was performed on 20 Lithuanian Black and White dairy cows. The pH and temperature of the contents of their reticulorumens were measured using boluses manufactured for animal care (smaXtec animal care technology®). The data from reticulorumen were recording at 1 to 7 and 7 to 56 d post calving and then post insemination (on average 60 ± 12) until 170 d after calving. The pregnancies were tested with ‘Easy scan’ ultrasound 30–35 d after insemination. Those cows which were pregnant were assigned to the PD+ group (n = 12), and those which were not pregnant – assigned to the PD− group (n = 8). Rumen pH was initially lower in the PD+ group but then higher than in PD−, but temperature did not differ between the groups until after conception. We can conclude that cows with disturbed rumen metabolism (with low rumen pH) are less likely to conceive. The measurements of reticuloruminal pH may be useful as a predictor of the likelihood of reproductive success, but more research is needed before practical application.
This Research Communication addresses the hypothesis that fat, protein, lactose and total solids content can be predicted using daily milk yield (DMY), pH, electrical conductivity (MEC) and refractive index (RI) of milk as predictors. It also addresses the possibility of these measurements being used for on-farm benchmarking activities towards selecting the highest yielding animals and flocks regarding milk quality traits (MQT). A total of 308 purebred Frizarta ewes were used for the study. From each individual ewe, a composite milk sample was collected. pH, MEC and RI of milk were measured and the samples were assayed for fat, protein, lactose and total solids content, using an automatic infrared milk analyser. The predictive value of DMY, pH, MEC and RI of milk on its MQT was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Significant regression equations were produced for all of the studied traits. RI and MEC were significant and reliable predictors for all studied MQT, whereas DMY was a significant predictor for most MQT with the exception of protein content. pH was a marginally significant predictor for some of the MQTs at the initial development of the equations but proved unreliable after bootstraping. Using these equations a number of ewes varying from 75 (for fat) to 97 (for protein) out of the 100 highest MQT yielders were correctly predicted, whereas, none of the ewes out of the 100 lowest MQT yielders was mispredicted as a high yielder for protein-, lactose- and total solids- content. Three out of 100 lowest fat-yielders were mispredicted as high fat-yielders. Similar equations can be used for benchmarking activities towards selecting the highest protein-, fat-, lactose- and total solids- yielding animals and flocks in cases where laboratories for MQT analyses are not readily available or the cost of chemical analyses is high. The method can be regarded as a handy tool for the dairy industry to readily assess milk quality at the farm level.
Little information is published related to seed germination and seedling emergence of Japanese foxtail, a troublesome annual grass weed widely distributed in winter wheat fields in China. Three Japanese foxtail populations were studied under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, to determine the effects of different environmental factors on seed germination or seedling emergence. Chemical control is absolutely necessary in integrated management, and efficacy of POST herbicides against different growth stages of Japanese foxtail was evaluated. Germination rate was 90% or more when temperature ranged from 5 to 25 C, with germination onset shortened as temperature increased. Light was not required for germination to occur. For pH values ranging from 5 to10 there was no effect on seed germination. Japanese foxtail seed germination was sensitive to osmotic stress and completely inhibited at an osmotic potential of -1.1 MPa. The ‘1513’ population of Japanese foxtail demonstrated tolerance to soil salinity, with 98% germination at 80 mM NaCl compared with 25 and 40% germination for populations ‘1532’ and ‘1544’, respectively. High amounts of crop residue (10 t ha−1) suppressed Japanese foxtail emergence 38 to 55%. Germination of seeds placed at 160 C for 5 min was completely inhibited for dry seeds, with a similar effect at 130 C for pre-soaked seeds. Seed burial in the soil from 0 to 4 cm had no effect on seedling emergence, but burial at 7 cm completely inhibited seedling emergence. POST herbicides mesosulfuron-methyl (13.5 g ai ha−1), clodinafop-propargyl (67.5 g ai ha−1), pyroxsulam (13.5 g ai ha−1), pinoxaden (67.5 g ai ha−1) and isoproturon (1125 g ai ha−1) reduced plant dry weight 80% or more when applied at three- to seven-leaf stage, but control declined with application at later growth stages. The information from this study helps to develop an integrated approach to Japanese foxtail management.
Contradictory statements about the effects of pH change on crystallisation behaviour of lactose exist in the literature. Considering the importance of addressing the processability issue of acid whey, a systematic study is required to establish lactose crystallisation behaviour in the presence of LA and Ca at concentrations present in real acid whey waste streams emphasising impact of pH. Structural modifications of lactose were evident at elevated, more neutral pH in the presence of 1% w/w LA and 0·12% w/w Ca. These structural changes led to changes in the anomeric equilibrium of lactose, which manipulated the water–lactose behaviour and increased the crystallinity. Therefore, altering pH to 6·5 may be the solution to proper industrial processing of acid whey, enhancing the ability of lactose to crystallise properly.
Shortawn foxtail is an invasive grass weed infesting winter wheat and canola production in China. A better understanding of the germination ecology of shortawn foxtail would help to develop better control strategies for this weed. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effects of various abiotic factors, including temperature, light, pH, osmotic stress, salt concentration, and planting depth, on seed germination and seedling emergence of shortawn foxtail. The results showed that the seed germination rate was greater than 90% over a wide range of constant (5 to 25C) and alternating (15/5 to 35/25C) temperatures. Maximum germination occurred at 20C or 25/15C, and no germination occurred at 35C. Light did not appear to have any effect on seed germination. Shortawn foxtail germination was 27% to 99% over a pH range of 4 to 10, and higher germination was obtained at alkaline pH values ranging from 7 to 10. Seed germination was sensitive to osmotic potential and completely inhibited at an osmotic potential of −0.6 MPa, but it was tolerant to salinity: germination even occurred at 200 mM NaCl (5%). Seedling emergence was highest (98%) when seeds were placed on the soil surface but declined with the increasing burial depth. No seedlings emerged when seeds were buried 6-cm deep. Deep tillage could be an effective measure to limit seed germination from increased burial depth. The results of this study will lead to a better understanding of the requirements for shortawn foxtail germination and emergence and will provide information that could contribute to its control.
Herbicide-resistant (R biotype) and -sensitive (S biotype) individuals were identified from the same population, and seed was increased for each biotype for three generations. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the effects of temperature, light, salt stress, osmotic stress, pH, and burial depth on the germination and emergence of resistant and sensitive biotypes of Japanese foxtail. The results revealed that there was no difference in the final germination rate between the two biotypes under different temperature conditions, but time to obtain 50% germination or emergence (tE50) and mean germination time of the R biotype were higher than that of the S biotype at 10 C and 15/10 C 12-h day/night regime. In dark conditions, the final germination rate of the S biotype was higher and lower than that of the R biotype at 10 and 25 C, respectively. The overall germination rate of the R biotype was lower than that in the S biotype, and extended germination time was required in extreme conditions, such as 250 mM NaCl and −0.4 MPa osmotic potential. The change in environmental pH had no effect on the germination of the two biotypes. Emergence of the R biotype was lower than the S biotype when seed was buried at least 8 cm deep in an organic matter substrate. This study demonstrated the pleiotropic effects of a resistance allele on seed germination and emergence under different environmental conditions. Deep tillage could be used to reduce the growth and spread of resistant Japanese foxtail individuals.
The nitric-acid dissolution of chrysotile was investigated with the aim of revealing the effect of pH on its structure. Chrysotile becomes more soluble at lower pH, with the octahedral, brucite sheet more readily dissolved than the tetrahedral sheet. The dissolution of the brucite sheet increases the pH of the solvent, because of the release of OH− groups along with the Mg2+ ions. At pH 2.00, the characteristic cylindrical fibre bundle structure of chrysotile is retained after dissolution, although the outside surface of each fibre becomes rough. Chrysotile remains fibrous upon dissolution at pH 1.08, but the fibres are no longer crystalline and their cylindrical structure collapses. The nitric-acid treatments result in an increase in both the specific surface area and the pore volume of chrysotile.
The influence of temperature, light, solution pH, water stress, salt stress, and burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of catchweed bedstraw and the sensitivity of that weed to commonly available herbicides in China were studied in laboratory and greenhouse. Germination occurred at day/night temperatures from 5/0 C to 30/25 C, with optimum germination at 15/10 C. Catchweed bedstraw germinated equally well under a 12-h photoperiod and continuous darkness; however, a 24-h photoperiod inhibited seed germination. Catchweed bedstraw seed is moderately sensitive to osmotic potential and salt stress, with 15 and 3% germination rates at an osmotic potential of −0.5 Mpa and salinity level of 120 mM, respectively. Maximum seed germination was observed in near neutral pH; germination was greater than 80% over a broad pH range from 5 to 8. Seedling emergence of the seeds buried at a depth of 1 cm was higher (74%) than those placed on the soil surface (20%), but declined with burial depth increasing. Few (10%) seedlings emerged when seeds were placed at a depth of 5 cm. Bensulfuron-methyl, and ethametsulfuron-methyl applied PRE and tribenuron-methyl, fluroxypyr, and florasulam applied POST can be used to provide greater than 80% control of catchweed bedstraw. The results of this study have contributed to more complete understanding of the germination and emergence of catchweed bedstraw.
The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of seven well characterized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in the dehydrated 7 Å form has been measured using a method based on cobalt hexammine exchange. In addition to unbuffered measurements, which varied between 2.9 and 9.3 cmol(+)kg−1, CECs were also determined over a wide pH range and proton titration measurements were conducted on two samples. The data were fitted using a constant capacitance model based on the presence of two sites: permanently charged sites and pH-dependent variable charged sites. Normalization of CEC to the average specific surface area (BET) of the halloysite samples reduces considerably the variation of CEC values for the different samples particularly over the intermediate pH range (5–9) with the average value at pH 7 equal to 8.5 cmol(+)kg−1 and a standard deviation of 1.17. Overall the CEC behaviour of the seven samples appears reasonably consistent throughout the set. Calculations based on proton titrations suggest a ratio of variable charge to basal sites for the dehydrated halloysite nanotubes of ∼3:1.
Asia minor bluegrass (AmB) is a major weed impacting rapeseed production in Dongting Lake District, China. Growth chamber experiments were conducted to determine the influence of environmental factors on germination and emergence of AmB. The optimum constant temperature for germination was around 20 C. Seeds showed germination percentages above 60% under 22/15 and 24/19 C day/night temperature regimes. Seeds could germinate in the dark, but light exposure significantly enhanced the germination percentage. More than 50% of seeds germinated over a pH range between 4 and 10. Seeds were highly sensitive to osmotic stress, and germination was completely inhibited at an osmotic potential of −0.4 MPa, indicating that it was favored by a moist environment. Increasing salinity reduced germination of AmB seeds from 58% at 0 mM to 13% at 80 mM NaCl. The highest seedling emergence (62%) was observed when seeds were placed on the soil surface, and no seedlings emerged from seeds placed at a depth of 5 cm. This work shows that the climate and soil conditions in Dongting Lake District are suitable for AmB seed germination and that no-till fields, where seeds remain on the soil surface, promote the successful establishment of the weed.
New insights from the recent literature are summarized and new data presented concerning the formation, structure and morphology of halloysite. Halloysite formation by weathering always requires the presence of water. Where substantial drying occurs, kaolinite is formed instead. Halloysite formation is favoured by a low pH. The octahedral sheet is positively charged at pH < ∼8, whereas the tetrahedral sheet is negatively charged at pH > ∼2. The opposing sheet charge would facilitate interlayer uptake of H2O molecules. When halloysite intercalates certain polar organic molecules, additional (hkl) reflections appear in the X-ray diffraction pattern, suggesting layer re-arrangement which, however, is dissimilar to that in kaolinite. Associated oxides and oxyhydroxides of Fe and Mn may limit the growth of halloysite particles as does incorporation of Fe into the structure. Particles of different shape and Fe content may occur within a given sample of halloysite.
Japanese brome is a winter annual weed commonly found in wheat fields in China. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the effect of temperature, light, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress, and burial depth on the germination and emergence of Japanese brome. Germination was greater than 98% under a wide temperature range of 5 to 30 C and onset of germination was shortened as temperature increased. Light was not required for germination to occur and pH values from 5 to 10 had insignificant effect on germination. Germination was reduced by osmotic stress or salt stress and no germination occurred at −1.3 MPa or 360 mM, suggesting that Japanese brome seed was quite tolerant to osmotic potential and salinity. Seedling emergence was greatest (98%) when seeds were placed on the soil surface but decreased with increasing of burial depth. Only 7% of seedlings emerged at a depth of 5 cm. The results of this study have contributed to our understanding of the germination and emergence of Japanese brome and should enhance our ability to develop better control strategies in wheat farming systems of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China.
Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the influence of spray-solution pH, adjuvant, light intensity, temperature, and glyphosate on the efficacy of saflufenacil on horseweed. Control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed from saflufenacil alone was greatest with a spray-solution pH of 5, compared with pH 7 or 9. However, when glyphosate was added to saflufenacil, similar GR50 values were measured with spray solutions adjusted to pH 5 and 9, and horseweed control at pH 9 was 38% greater than at pH 7. The efficacy of saflufenacil on horseweed was 36% greater when crop oil concentrate was used as an adjuvant compared with nonionic surfactant, regardless of the addition of glyphosate or the sensitivity of the horseweed population to glyphosate (resistant vs. susceptible). The addition of glyphosate to low rates of saflufenacil increased control over saflufenacil applied alone on glyphosate-susceptible and -resistant horseweed. Saflufenacil activity was greater under low light intensity (300 μmol m−2 s−1) than high light intensity (1,000 μmol m−2 s−1). Although initial horseweed control was greater under high temperature (27 C) compared with low temperature (10 C), by 21 d after treatment horseweed dry weight was similar from saflufenacil applied under high and low temperatures.
The influence of environmental factors on germination and emergence of aryloxyphenoxy propanoate herbicide-resistant (AR) and -susceptible (AS) Asia Minor bluegrass were studied in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Seeds were collected from AR and AS plants cultivated in separate greenhouses under the same environmental conditions. The results revealed that optimum temperatures for the germination of AS biotype were 10 to 25 C or alternating temperature of 15/5 to 30/20 C and light was not necessary. However, maximum germination occurred at 10 C or 15/5 C, and no germination occurred above 15 C or 25/15 C for the AR biotype. The AS Asia Minor bluegrass was consistently more tolerant to environmental stress, as evidenced by their greater germination at same pH value, osmotic potential, and NaCl concentration at 15/5 C compared to the AR biotype. Higher emergence rates were obtained when seeds were sown on the surface of soil for both biotypes. Emergence percentage of the AR biotype was below 14% when buried, whereas the AS biotype had 20% emergence at 2.5 cm burial depth. It is concluded that several environmental factors affect the germination of Asia Minor bluegrass, and the AS biotype showed higher germination percentage and a wider adaptive range under same treatments compared with the AR biotype. Due to the reduced emergence at depth, deep tillage could be an effective management to reduce AR Asia Minor bluegrass infestation in the following crop.
The ultimate goal of this work was to examine the effect of xanthan-curdlan hydrogel complex (XCHC) on the rheology of whey protein isolate (WPI) within the pH range of 4–7 upon heating and cooling. Dynamic rheological properties of WPI and XCHC were studied individually and in combination, as a function of time or temperature. For pure WPI, gels were pH-dependent, and in all pH values except 7, gels formed upon first heating from 40 to 90 °C. At pH 7, WPI did not form gel upon first heating, and the storage modulus (G′) started to increase during the holding time at 90 °C. The onset of gelation temperature of WPI was lower in acidic pH ranges compared to the neutral pH. In mixed gels, the presence of XCHC increased the G′ of the gels. The rheological behaviour was pH-dependent and initially was controlled by XCHC; however, after the consolidation of WPI network, the behaviour was led by the whey protein isolate. Results showed that XCHC had a synergistic effect on enhancing the elastic modulus of the gels after the consolidation of WPI network. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to use these biopolymers in the formulation of frozen dairy-based products and enable food manufactures to improve the textural and physicochemical properties, and as a result the consumer acceptance of the food product.