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In Australia, free-range egg production pullets are typically reared indoors, but adult layers get outdoor access. This new environment may be challenging to adapt to, which could impair egg production and/or egg quality. Adaptation might be enhanced through rearing enrichments. We reared 1386 Hy-Line Brown® chicks indoors with three treatments across 16 weeks: (1) a control group with standard litter housing conditions, (2) a novelty group providing novel objects that changed weekly, and (3) a structural enrichment group with custom-designed structures to partially impair visibility across the pen and allow for vertical movement. Pullets were transferred to a free-range system at 16 weeks of age with daily outdoor access provided from 25 until 64 weeks. Daily egg production at different laying locations (large nests, small nests and floor), weekly egg weights and egg abnormalities were recorded from 18 to 64 weeks old. External and internal egg quality parameters of egg weight, shell reflectivity, albumen height, haugh unit, yolk colour score, shell weight and shell thickness were measured at 44, 52, 60 and 64 weeks. There was a significant interaction between rearing treatment and nest box use on hen-day production from weeks 18 to 25 (P < 0.0001) with the novelty hens laying the most eggs and the control hens the fewest eggs in the nest box. Similarly, from 26 to 64 weeks, the novelty hens laid more eggs in the large nest boxes and fewer eggs on the floor than both the structural and control hens (P < 0.0001). Egg weight and abnormalities increased with age (P < 0.0001), but rearing treatment had no effect on either measure (both P ≥ 0.19). Rearing treatment affected shell reflectivity and yolk colour with the control hens showing paler colours across time relative to the changes observed in the eggs from enriched hens. The novelty hens may have established nest box laying patterns as they were more accustomed to exploring new environments. The differences in egg quality could be related to stress adaptability or ranging behaviour. This study shows that enriching environments during rearing can have some impacts on production parameters in free-range hens.
Many plant traits might explain the different ecological and network roles of fruit-eating birds. We assessed the relationship of plant productivity, fruit traits (colour, seed size and nutritional quality) and dietary specialization, with the network roles of fruit-eating birds (number of partners, centrality and selectivity) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. We classified bird species according to their dietary specialization into three categories: obligate, partial and opportunistic fruit-eating birds. To test if network roles changed according to dietary specialization, fruit productivity and traits, we used a generalized linear model analysis. The selected 14 species of plant interacted with 52 bird species, which consumed 2199 fruits. The most central and generalist fruit-eating bird, Turdus albicolis, interacted with plants that produced more fruits, such as Miconia cinerascens, and had, on average, larger seeds, such as Myrcia splendens. The most selective birds interacted with fruits with a higher concentration of lipids and less intense colour, and plants that produced fewer fruits. Obligate fruit-eating birds, such as Patagioenas plumbea, were more selective than partial and opportunistic birds. Different plant traits are therefore related to the different network roles of fruit-eating birds in the Atlantic Forest, which are also dependent on bird dietary specialization.
The late Miocene is a time of strong environmental change in SW Asia. Himalayan foreland stable isotope data show a shift in the dominant vegetation of the flood plains away from trees and shrubs towards more C4 grasslands at a time when oceanic upwelling increased along the Oman margin. We present integrated geochemical and colour spectral records from International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1456 in the eastern Arabian Sea to reconstruct changing chemical weathering and erosion, as well as relative humidity during this climatic transition. Increasing hematite/goethite ratios derived from spectral data are consistent with long-term drying after c. 7.7 Ma. Times of dry conditions are largely associated with weaker chemical alteration measured by K/Rb and reduced coarse clastic flux, constrained by Si/Al and Zr/Al. A temporary phase of increased humidity from 6.3 to 5.95 Ma shows a reversal to stronger weathering and erosion. Wetter conditions can result in both more and less alteration due to the nonlinear relationship between weathering rates, precipitation and sediment transport times. Trends in relative aridity do not follow existing palaeoceanographic records and are not apparently linked to changes in Tibetan or Himalayan elevation, but more closely correlate with global cooling. An apparent opposing trend in the humidity evolution in the Indus compared to southern China, as tracked by spectrally estimated hematite/goethite, likely reflects differences in the topography in the Indus compared to the Pearl River drainage basins, as well as the generally wetter climate in southern China.
Considering the additional market value of pasture meat, many authentication methods were developed to discriminate it from meat produced in conventional systems. The visible reflectance spectroscopy technique has proved its efficiency under European conditions and breeds. The present study tested the reliability of this method to discriminate between pasture-fed (P) and stall-fed (S) lambs under North African conditions and investigated the effect of feeding system (FS) (P v. S) and breed (Barbarine; Queue Fine de l’Ouest; and Noire de Thibar) on weight and colour of perirenal, subcutaneous and caudal fat. A total of 18 P and 18 S lambs were used with 6 P and 6 S lambs for each breed. The colour and the reflectance spectrum of different fat tissues were measured. The FS affected weights of all fat tissues and all colour parameters of perirenal and subcutaneous fat (P ≤ 0.01); it almost affected redness and yellowness of caudal fat (P ≤ 0.05; P ≤ 0.01). In all adipose tissues, lightness was higher and both redness and yellowness were lower for S lambs than P lambs. The breed affected weight, lightness and redness of perirenal fat and weight and redness of subcutaneous fat with significant interaction with FS for subcutaneous fat data. To discriminate P lambs from S lambs, the reflectance spectrum of perirenal, subcutaneous and caudal fat at wavelengths between 450 and 510 nm (Method 1, M1) or at wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm using partial least squares discriminative analysis as a classification method (Method 2, M2) were used. M2 yielded to a higher proportion of correctly classified lambs compared with M1 (P = 0.001). The proportion of correctly classified lambs using M2 was 76.4, 75.0 and 80.0% for perirenal, subcutaneous and caudal fat for P lambs and 83.3, 76.4 and 100.0% for S lambs. Despite lower reliability in comparisons to European researches, this study confirmed the efficiency of visible reflectance spectroscopy technique applied on perirenal fat in feeding systems authentication under North African conditions and spotted the caudal fat as a new support for better classification of fat-tailed breeds.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume nutritionally balanced for human consumption. The physical properties of chickpea seeds are important for processing and storage as well as for assessing seed quality and the hydration properties related to cooking quality. The chickpea mini core collection (211 accessions) and four control cultivars were evaluated for seed morphological (seed colour, shape, dots on seed coat and surface texture); physical (seed moisture content, 100-seed weight, seed coat content, length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter (GMD), surface area, sphericity, shape aspect, volume, bulk density, true density and porosity); and hydration traits (hydration capacity, hydration index, swelling capacity and swelling index). Highly significant differences were observed for all the seed traits in the mini core collection. Correlation coefficients indicated that accessions with high or more seed weight, GMD, sphericity, seed shape aspect, swelling capacity and swelling index would be useful for utilization in research. The results of this study have refined the seed traits of chickpea and resulted in identifying several desirable accessions in the mini core. Some of these accessions were previously identified as promising sources for important agronomic and nutritional traits and for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and will be useful sources to develop high-yielding cultivars with desirable seed physical and hydration quality.
Leaf colour characteristics of 730 sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), plant introduction (PI) accessions from the USDA sweetpotato germplasm collection were evaluated during 2012–2014. Colorimetry data for the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces were recorded using a tristimulus colorimeter and the CIE 1976 L*a*b* and CIE L*C*h* colour spaces. Most accessions (725 of 730 PIs) had dark-to-medium green leaves, but two PIs had totally purple leaves, and three PIs had yellow or yellow-green (chartreuse) leaves. For mature, field-grown green leaves, values for the red-green coordinate (a*) averaged −12.4 for the adaxial and −10.4 for the abaxial leaf surface. Values for the blue-yellow coordinate (b*) averaged 17.2 for the adaxial and 17.3 for the abaxial leaf surface. Hue angle (h*) for green leaves averaged 120.9° for the adaxial and 126.2° for the abaxial leaf surface. Colour saturation (Chroma, C*) averaged 21.3 for the adaxial and 20.2 for the abaxial leaf surface. Lightness (L*) averaged 35.4 for the adaxial and 47.2 for the abaxial leaf surface of green leaves. Late in the season, over one-half (53.9%) of the 730 PIs showed some level of purple pigmentation in the leaf lamina. Late-season purple leaves were collected and colour coordinates were recorded for 118 PIs grown in the field. For purple leaves, values for a*, b*, C*, L* and h* averaged 2.3, 6.2, 7.9, 28.2 and 64.4° for the adaxial surface and −1.0, 12.7, 13.9, 43.1 and 87.0° for the abaxial leaf surface, respectively.
Overview of key identifying features of noise as can typically occur in geoscience time-series. Categorisation according to noise colour; white, red and blue noise. Consideration of autocorrelation and autoregression, power spectral density and power-law. Worked red-noise example to illustrate.
Lambs grazing alfalfa or white clover are prone to flavour taint which can be an impediment to consumer acceptance. Here we investigated whether condensed tannin (CT)-rich sainfoin pellet supplementation of lambs grazing alfalfa influences meat sensory quality. Using three groups of 18 male Romane weaned lambs, we compared three feeding regimes: alfalfa grazing (AF), alfalfa grazing + daily supplementation with CT-rich sainfoin pellets (15 g dry matter (DM)/kg live weight, AS) and stall feeding with concentrate and grass hay indoors (SI). We also investigated the potential interest of sainfoin pellet supplementation for controlling digestive parasitism. The sainfoin pellets contained 42 g of CT/kg of DM and they represented on average 36% of the diet in AS lambs. Skatole and indole were detected in most of the AF and AS lambs, whereas in very few SI lambs. Skatole and indole concentrations in perirenal and dorsal fat were lower in the AS lambs than the AF lambs (P < 0.025 to P < 0.001), but the intensity of ‘animal’ odour and ‘animal’ flavour of the chops did not differ between both forage-grazing groups. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle lightness was lower in the AF and AS lambs than the SI lambs (P < 0.001) with the other muscle colour coordinates being unaffected by the treatment and between-treatment group differences in muscle colour coordinates remaining constant throughout the 9-day display period. Subcutaneous fat colour coordinates were not influenced by the treatment. The number of individual anthelmintic drenches necessary to keep nematode faecal egg count below a threshold of 550 eggs/g of faeces was lower in the AS than the AF lambs (0.94 per lamb v. 1.63 per lamb; P < 0.001). Faecal oocyst count was lower in the AS than the AF lambs for the first measurement made 56 days after the beginning of the experiment (P < 0.001) and was not significantly different between both forage-grazing groups thereafter. The use of CT-rich sainfoin pellets to supplement lambs that are concurrently grazing alfalfa reduced fat volatile skatole and indole concentrations and delayed the onset of both helminth and coccidian infections.
We give the generating function of split
-colour partitions and obtain an analogue of Euler’s identity for split
-colour partitions. We derive a combinatorial relation between the number of restricted split
-colour partitions and the function
. We introduce a new class of split perfect partitions with
copies of each part
and extend the work of Agarwal and Subbarao [‘Some properties of perfect partitions’, Indian J. Pure Appl. Math22(9) (1991), 737–743].
A systematic method for determining colour descriptor states using image analysis is proposed using pili (Canarium ovatum) as a model. Kernel images of 52 pili accessions from the core collection of the Institute of Crop Science and National Plant Genetic Resources Laboratory, University of the Philippines Los Baños were captured using a calibrated VideometerLab 3 setup. Colour descriptor states were derived from the average International Commission on Illumination lightness (L*), green–red (a*) and blue–yellow (b*) colour component values. Cluster analysis and subsequent colour-parameter averaging per cluster were performed to produce representative colour values of descriptor states. The Euclidian distance (Delta E) of 3.5 was used to cut the cluster into readily distinguishable colour differences resulting to three descriptor states – light brown, brown and dark brown. Continuous colour variation of brown colour was observed indicating a possible quantitative nature of the trait. The use of delta E in elucidating the descriptor lists served as a gauge in successfully identifying distinguishable variations between colours. The method described can be applied to the elucidation of colour descriptor states of all parts of the plant of all crop species.
Three new species of snapping shrimps of the genus Alpheus are described from the Persian Gulf. These belong to the Alpheus edwardsii species-group, which is mainly characterized by unarmed orbital hoods and the presence of dorsal and ventral notches on the palm of the major chela. Alphus ankeri sp. nov. shows a close affinity to A. pacificus Dana, 1852 and A. heronicus Banner & Banner, 1982 bearing no balaeniceps crests in both sexes on the dactylus of the minor chela, and the merus of the major chela of both sexes are unarmed. This species differs from the closely related species by the absence of an overhanging proximal shoulder in the major chela. The other rock crevice inhabiting species, A. mohammadpouri sp. nov. is diagnosed by exhibiting sexual dimorphism in its balaeniceps crests and the armed merus of the major chela. These two characters are similar to those recorded for three sandy/rubble dwelling species: A. inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958, A. lobidens De Haan, 1849 and A. australiensis Banner & Banner, 1982. This new species is distinguishable from these latter species by the shape of the minor chela and colour pattern. A coral inhabiting species A. abumusa sp. nov. appears to be closely related to A. maindroni Coutière, 1898, showing an armed merus of the major chela and the absence of spine-like seta on the ischia of the third legs. This last new species is easily discriminated from A. maindroni by longer antennular segments, a markedly concave frontal margin between the rostrum and orbital hood, and a different colour pattern.
Excessive flavour in lamb meat is undesirable for consumers and can prompt purchase resistance. Volatile indoles responsible for off-flavours accumulate more in the fat of lambs on pasture than on grain and are enhanced when lambs graze alfalfa. Here, we investigated whether barley supplementation of lambs grazing alfalfa influences meat sensory quality. Using three groups of 12 male Romane lambs, we compared three feeding regimes: alfalfa grazing (AG), alfalfa grazing + daily supplementation with barley (29 g/kg live weight0.75, AGS) and stall feeding with concentrate and hay (SF). As some of the compounds involved in meat sensory traits may act as dietary biomarkers, we also investigated potential implications for meat authentication. Although barley represented 38% of the diet in AGS lambs, it did not offer any advantage for animal average daily gain or parasitism level. Animal performance, carcass weight and fatness did not differ between feeding regimes. Dorsal fat firmness tended to be greater in AG than AGS and greater in AGS than SF. Skatole and indole concentrations in perirenal and dorsal fat were lower in SF lambs than in AG and AGS lambs (P<0.01 to P<0.0001), but did not differ between AG and AGS lambs. Yellowness, chroma and hue angle of perirenal fat were lower in SF lambs than in AG and AGS lambs (P<0.001), but did not differ between AG and AGS lambs. Absolute value of the mean integral for both perirenal fat and subcutaneous caudal fat (AVMIPF and AVMISC), quantifying the intensity of light absorption by carotenoids in perirenal and subcutaneous caudal fat, respectively, were lower in SF lambs than in AG and AGS lambs (P<0.0001 for both comparisons), but did not differ between AG and AGS lambs. Meat colour was unaffected by the treatment. We confirm that lambs grazing alfalfa accumulate high levels of volatile indoles in their fat, but we show that barley supplementation to lambs grazing alfalfa is not effective in reducing fat volatile indoles concentration and excessive odour/flavour in the meat. We also confirm that both perirenal fat skatole concentration and AVMIPF are of interest for discriminating lambs that grazed alfalfa from lambs that were stall-fed, and we show that they are not effective for discriminating supplemented from non-supplemented grazing lambs.
The recent push to diversify philosophy courses is often motivated by a desire to include underrepresented students. Although incorporating non-Western philosophy would achieve greater diversity, there seems to be no special reason to select non-Western traditions for this purpose. I argue this appearance is deceiving. Data suggests an absence of non-Western content in the curriculum causes alienation for some of our students of colour. Given the minimal burden it would impose on philosophy instructors to address this suffering, we have good reason to include some non-Western content in our introductory courses, where it is likely to have the greatest impact.
Polymorphism is common in nature, but few Heliconius species are polymorphic for wing colour patterns. Eastern Brazil H. erato phyllis populations are polymorphic for hindwing elements (red raylets) and studies suggest that trait distribution varies seasonally. We carried a 3-y sampling to evaluate the hypothesis that season, wing length and pollen foraging were associated with morph diversity. Individual phenotypes were scored with regards to number of red elements in the dry and in the wet seasons. Co-mimic H. melpomene nanna was also analysed. We scored 432 H. erato and 513 H. melpomene. Our results confirm polymorphism in H. erato, with individuals showing from one to eight elements, with a mode between five and six. We found that H. melpomene is polymorphic for red dots, varying from two to five (mode = 2). Red basal dots were mostly invariant in H. erato. Even though we found a seasonal change in pollen loads, we found no association between individual phenotypes and season, pollen load scores, or wing length. We reject the hypothesis of ecological correlates of morph frequency, and suggest that trait colour variation in the two species is linked to and constrained by effects on mate recognition.
Bull beef production is traditionally based on high concentrate rations fed indoors. Inclusion of grazed grass, which is generally a cheaper feed, would decrease the cost of bull beef production, but may affect beef quality. Accordingly, the organoleptic quality and composition of beef from continental-sired suckler bulls (n=126) assigned to either ad libitum concentrates to slaughter (C), grass silage (GS) ad libitum for 120 days followed by C (GSC) or GS followed by 100 days at pasture and then C (GSPC) and slaughtered at target carcass weights (CW) of 360, 410 or 460 kg was examined. Tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking were lower (P<0.05) for GSPC than for C and GSC. Intramuscular fat content and soluble collagen proportion were lower (P<0.05) for GSPC than GSC which was lower (P<0.05) than C. Soluble collagen proportion was lower (P<0.05) for 460 kg than 410 kg CW, which was lower (P<0.05) than 360 kg CW. Inclusion of a grazing period decreased the ratings of tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking, but age of the bulls at slaughter had no clear influence on sensory characteristics.
We study a Pólya-type urn model defined as follows. Start at time 0 with a single ball of some colour. Then, at each time n≥1, choose a ball from the urn uniformly at random. With probability ½<p<1, return the ball to the urn along with another ball of the same colour. With probability 1−p, recolour the ball to a new colour and then return it to the urn. This is equivalent to the supercritical case of a random graph model studied by Backhausz and Móri (2015), (2016) and Thörnblad (2015). We prove that, with probability 1, there is a dominating colour, in the sense that, after some random but finite time, there is a colour that always has the most number of balls. A crucial part of the proof is the analysis of an urn model with two colours, in which the observed ball is returned to the urn along with another ball of the same colour with probability p, and removed with probability 1−p. Our results here generalise a classical result about the Pólya urn model (which corresponds to p=1).
Cottonseed hulls are co-product of agribusiness that can be used in beef cattle rations, decreasing the cost of feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cottonseed hull levels, display and ageing times on visual and sensorial meat acceptability. Longissimus thoracis muscle from 30 crossbred young bulls finished on three high-grain diets (210, 270 or 330 g/kg of cottonseed hulls on dry matter, respectively) were visually evaluated during 10 days of display by 37 appraisers. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability from the three diets and three ageing times (1, 7 and 14 days) were evaluated by 120 consumers. On the visual study, time of display (P⩽0.001) was a more significant factor than diet. Cottonseed hull level had no effect on sensorial analyses, with tenderness acceptability improving with ageing time (P⩽0.001). Results indicate the possibility of using the three studied levels of cottonseed without damaging consumer meat acceptability.
The Usambara effect, i.e. a change of tourmaline colour from deep-green to dark-red with increasing path length of light, has been studied by optical absorption spectroscopy and colourimetric calculations on a sample of Tanzanian tourmaline of predominant dravite composition with 0.12 apfu Cr. For comparison a dark-green vanadium-bearing tourmaline from Tanzania (0.05 apfu V), which does not show such an effect, was also investigated. As established, the Usambara effect, by its nature, is closely related to the alexandrite effect, although in this case the colour change is not caused by change of spectral composition of the light of illumination, but by spectral positions of the spin-allowed absorption bands of Cr3+, a specific ratio of light transmission in two windows of transparency, green and red, and by non-linear, exponential dependence of the light transmittance on the thickness of sample. A threshold chromium content must be exceeded for the Usambara effect to show, that is, sufficient chromium for there to be two deep and well-demarcated windows of transparency in the visible range. The overall colouration results from mixing of two additive colours coming through the windows of transparency. A dark-green chromium-bearing tourmaline from the Ural Mountains (0.40 and 0.20 apfu Cr and Fe, respectively) shows how admixtures of other chromophore ions, namely, Fe2+ and Fe3+, can suppress the Usambara effect in tourmaline.
Frankliniella schultzei Trybom is a polyphagous pest and vector of tospoviruses worldwide. It occurs in dark and pale colour forms that are morphologically similar but differ in vector competency and geographic spread. In Kenya and other tropical regions, mixed populations of both colour forms are observed in similar habitats, so are considered as one species. To ascertain the taxonomic status of the two colour forms, they were characterized using morphological, molecular, biological and ecological approaches. Morphological characterization revealed differences between the colour forms on eight features and they separated into distinct clusters through principal component analysis. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-RFLP) analysis revealed differences between the two colour forms and was confirmed by differences in ITS2 sequences. Virgin pale females had female offspring (thelytoky), while virgin dark females had male offspring (arrhenotoky). Interbreeding of dark males with pale females resulted in pale females, indicating absence of interbreeding between the two colour forms. Laboratory colonies of pale forms lacked males and further analysis of F. schultzei males from Ipomoea setosa flowers in the field indicated the presence of dark males and the absence of pale males. Field surveys in Kenya indicated differences in distribution and host plant preferences among the colour forms. Lack of interbreeding, distinct host preferences and distribution, and morphological and molecular differences indicate that the two colour forms of F. schultzei could be different species. The results highlight the need for combining morphological, biological, molecular and ecological characteristics for resolving taxonomic status of closely related insects.
The living species of the genus Retrophyllum C.N. Page (Podocarpaceae) are revised. A key to the six species recognised is given. Retrophyllum filicifolium (N.E.Gray) R.R.Mill comb. nov. from New Guinea and the Moluccas is recognised as a species distinct from R. vitiense (Seemann) C.N. Page, which is restricted to material from Fiji and the Solomon Islands. Additional characters are given by which to separate Retrophyllum piresii (Silba) C.N. Page (Brazil) from R. rospigliosii (Pilg.) C.N. Page (Andes). The six species fall into three species-pairs that differ in reproductive characters: one pair in Papuasia and Melanesia, a second on New Caledonia and a third in South America. In the New Caledonian species-pair, the adult leaves are flattened in four ranks with only minimal heterofacial twisting, whereas in the species-pair inhabiting Fiji, New Guinea and neighbouring areas, as well as the pair inhabiting South America, the adult leaves are arranged in two ranks with significant heterofacial twisting. The names Podocarpus filicifolius N.E.Gray and Nageia minor Carrière, respectively the basionyms of Retrophyllum filicifolium and R. minus, are lectotypified, and the typification of Nageia minor comprehensively discussed in an appendix. Adult female epitypes are additionally designated for Podocarpus filicifolius, which was originally based on juvenile foliage of Retrophyllum mixed with a detached seed of Nageia wallichiana, and for Nageia minor, which Carrière described on the basis of sterile material. Two other appendices provide a list of accepted names and synonyms, and a list of exsiccatae. Illustrations and distribution maps are provided for each species.