To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In April 2016, the Japanese government introduced an additional benefit for dementia care in acute care hospitals (dementia care benefit) into the universal benefit schedule of public healthcare insurance program. The benefit includes a financial disincentive to use physical restraint. The present study investigated the association between the dementia care benefit and the use of physical restraint among inpatients with dementia in general acute care settings.
A national cross-sectional study design was used. Eight types of care units from acute care hospitals under the public healthcare insurance program were invited to participate in this study. A total of 23,539 inpatients with dementia from 2,355 care units in 937 hospitals were included for the analysis. Dementia diagnosis or symptoms included any signs of cognitive impairment. The primary outcome measure was “use of physical restraint.”
Among patients, the point prevalence of physical restraint was 44.5% (n = 10,480). Controlling for patient, unit, and hospital characteristics, patients in units with dementia care benefit had significantly lower percentage of physical restraint than those in any other units (42.0% vs. 47.1%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confident interval [0.63, 0.92]).
The financial incentive may have reduced the risk of physical restraint among patients with dementia in acute care hospitals. However, use of physical restraint was still common among patients with dementia in units with the dementia care benefit. An educational package to guide dementia care approach including the avoidance of physical restraint by healthcare professionals in acute care hospitals is recommended.
There is little expert consensus as to which drugs should comprise the first-line pharmacological treatment for delirium. We sought to assess experts’ opinions on the first-line oral and injection drugs for delirium associated with a diverse range of clinical features using a rating-based conjoint analysis.
We conducted a cross-sectional study. We mailed a questionnaire to all consultation-liaison psychiatrists/educators certified by the Japanese Society of General Hospital Psychiatry.
Of 136 experts (response rate: 27.5%), more than 68% recommended the use of risperidone or quetiapine administered orally for hyperactive delirium, except in patients with comorbid diabetes and renal dysfunction. More than 67% recommended the use of haloperidol administered intravenously for hyperactive delirium if an intravenous line has been placed. No oral or injection drugs were recommended by over half of experts for treatment of hypoactive delirium with any clinical features.
In the absence of a definitive treatment trial, there are both areas of agreement and a lack of consensus regarding the first-line drug. Efforts are needed to routinely collect information that would allow a comparison of the effectiveness and safety of various drugs in real-world clinical practice.
We aimed to examine trends in the use of psychotropic medications among elderly outpatients with dementia in Japan between 2002 and 2010.
We used data from the 2002–2010 Survey of Medical Care Activities in Public Health Insurance (SMCA-PHI), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of claims data for the month of June in every year. We included ambulatory care visits by patients aged 65 years or older who were prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors (n = 15,591), and identified use of any psychotropic medications during the survey month.
In 2008–2010, the most prevalently prescribed psychotropic medications to patients with dementia were sedatives-hypnotics (37.5%), antipsychotics (24.9%), antidepressants (13.0%), and mood-stabilizers (2.9%). Between 2002–2004 and 2008–2010, use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increased from 5.0% to 12.0%, while use of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) decreased from 20.6% to 12.9%. These numbers resulted in a 1.1-fold increase in the adjusted prevalence of the overall use of antipsychotics. Quetiapine and risperidone use showed a 4.8- and 1.8-fold increase, respectively, while haloperidol use showed a 2.3-fold decrease.
Despite safety warnings against the use of antipsychotics for patients with dementia in several countries, our study revealed a slight increase in the extensive use of off-label antipsychotics over time in Japan. This finding indicates an urgent need for evaluation of the efficacy of antipsychotics for the approved treatment of severe agitation, aggression, and psychosis associated with dementia. Moreover, psychosocial interventions and antipsychotic withdrawal strategies are needed in order to reduce the overall prevalence of antipsychotic use.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.