To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The carbon isotope value of ethane in the southern part of the Jingbian gas field is lower than that in the northern part, indicating a carbon isotopic reversal in the southern Jingbian gas field (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane). Through comparing the geochemical characteristics of gases in the southern and northern parts of the gas field, the reasons for the carbon isotopic reversal in the southern Jingbian gas field were determined to be high thermal maturity and mixing action. When thermal maturity reaches a critical value, the carbon isotope value of ethane becomes relatively more depleted with thermal maturity. Although the carbon isotope value of methane increases with thermal maturity, the extent is relatively smaller. Finally, the rare phenomenon of δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane occurs. High thermal maturity leads to the secondary thermal cracking of gases. Mixing of the cracked gases and primary gases also leads to carbon isotopic reversal. Both of the above mechanisms share a common premise, which is high thermal maturity.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance estrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients, is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58.8±7.4 years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: “healthy”, “sweets” and “Traditional Tianjin” from 88 food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The associations between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were assessed by using multiple logistic regression analysis.
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: “healthy”, 1.00, 0.79(0.49–1.28), 0.62(0.37–1.04), and 0.57(0.33–0.97); “sweets”,1.00, 0.75(0.42–1.3), 1.08(0.64–1.81) and 1.66(1.03–2.71); “Traditional Tianjin”, 1.00, 1.02(0.58–1.79), 0.96 (0.54–1.71) and 2.53(1.58–4.16), respectively.
The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and Traditional Tianjin dietary patterns were associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
A kind of novel Ni–P gradient coating/stannate conversion film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy (AZ91D alloy) by an integrative method involved stannate conversion and electroless plating. The results indicated that using sodium hypophosphite concentrations varied as 5, 10, 22, 46, and 60 g/L in the bath, the electroless Ni–P gradient coating with typical cell morphologies was successfully prepared, and the structures transited from crystalline → microcrystalline → amorphous were obtained as increasing P content from 3.31 to 12.58 wt%. Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies, polarization curves, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy result indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ91D alloy substrate was significantly improved and the corrosion resistance of Ni–P gradient coating was superior than that of stannate conversion film, which might be attributed to the gradient structure and rising P content with unique function.
In this paper, a novel method for autonomous navigation for an extra-terrestrial body landing mission is proposed. Based on state-of-the-art crater detection and matching algorithms, a crater edge-based navigation method is formulated, in which solar illumination direction is adopted as a complementary optical cue to aid crater edge-based navigation when only one crater is available. To improve the pose estimation accuracy, a distributed Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is developed to encapsulate the crater edge-based estimation approach. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed approach is validated by Monte Carlo simulations using a specifically designed planetary landing simulation toolbox.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major worldwide public-health problem, but less data are available on the long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Eastern China. This study describes the prevalence and long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hefei, Anhui, China from 2010 to 2017 based on annual point-prevalence surveys. A total of 12 505 inpatients were included; 600 HAIs were recorded in 533 patients, with an overall prevalence of 4.26% and a frequency of 4.80%. No evidence was found for an increasing or decreasing trend in prevalence of HAI over 8 years (trend χ2 = 2.15, P = 0.143). However, significant differences in prevalence of HAI were evident between the surveys (χ2 = 21.14, P < 0.001). The intensive care unit had the highest frequency of HAIs (24.36%) and respiratory tract infections accounted for 62.50% of all cases; Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (16.67%). A 44.13% prevalence of antimicrobial use with a gradually decreasing trend over time was recorded. More attention should be paid to potential high-risk clinical departments and HAI types with further enhancement of rational antimicrobial use.
Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children from developed countries. The Interleukin-6/ Interleukin-12 cytokine family has many members, including the paradoxical anti- and pro-inflammatory Interleukin-27. Recent studies have demonstrated that Interleukin-27 plays a role in immune diseases. Given this, we sought to evaluate the association between Interleukin-27 genetic polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease in Chinese children.
Methods and results
Interleukin-27 was genotyped in 100 Kawasaki disease children and 98 healthy children (controls), resulting in the direct sequencing of eight Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms: rs17855750, rs40837, rs26528, rs428253, rs4740, rs4905, rs153109, and rs181206). There were no significant differences in Interleukin-27 genotypes between Kawasaki disease and control groups. Of the eight Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms, there was a significant increase in the risk of Kawasaki disease with coronary arterial lesions in children with the rs17855750 (T>G), rs40837 (A>G), rs4740 (G>A), rs4905 (A>G), rs153109 (T>C), and rs26528 (A>G) Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms. This was particularly true for rs17855750 (T>G), which had a greater frequency in Kawasaki disease children with coronary arterial aneurysm.
These findings may be used as risk factors when assessing a child’s likelihood of developing Kawasaki disease, as well as for the development of future therapeutic treatments for Kawasaki disease.
Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloem-feeding woodborer of poplar (Populus Linnaeus; Salicaceae) in northeastern China. These two species can be distinguished morphologically as O. fleischeri has five tarsomeres and O. saimaensis has four tarsomeres. Although O. saimaensis is morphologically similar to its sympatric congener O. agrili Zhang and Hang, 2005, an important natural enemy of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, molecular phylogenetics and morphological data indicate that they are distinct species. Phylogenetic relationships among the new species and other closely related species are also inferred by using DNA sequence data from several ribosomal and mitochondrial genes. In addition, we expand the known distribution of Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan, 2016 to include South Korea.
The mass-balance of Muztag Ata No. 15 (MZ15) glacier in the eastern Pamir is reconstructed between 1980 and 2012 using an energy-based mass-balance model. The results show that this glacier has been characterized by obvious interannual mass-balance changes during 1980–2012 with a slightly positive mass balance during 1998–2012. Precipitation in the ablation season is a primary driver of these mass-balance fluctuations. Distinct changes in the mass-balance of MZ15 glacier between 1980–1997 and 1998–2012 are thought to be associated with changes in the regionally averaged meridional wind speed and corresponding precipitation in the ablation season. The negative and positive mass-balance phases during 1980–1997 and 1998–2012, respectively, were associated with northerly and southerly wind anomalies in the eastern Pamir and their corresponding decreasing and increasing precipitation. These changes in circulation appear to be linked to the mid-latitude climate. Finally, contrary to the variation of most glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau, glaciers in the Karakoram-western Kunlun-eastern Pamir appear to have retreated more slowly over the past 10 years than during the 1970s-2000. This contrasting trend may be caused by different changes in snowfall and different topography factors in different regions under warming and increased precipitation.
Knowledge of debris-free and debris-covered glaciers is important for understanding the varying response of glaciers to climate change. Measurements at the debris-free Parlung No. 4 Glacier and the debris-covered 24 K Glacier in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau were carried out to compare the meteorology and surface energy fluxes and to understand the factors controlling the melting process. The meteorological comparisons displayed temporally synchronous fluctuations in air temperature, relative humidity and incoming longwave radiation (Lin), but notable differences in precipitation, incoming shortwave radiation (Sin) and wind speed. Under the prevailing regional precipitation and debris conditions, more Lin (42 W m−2) was supplied from warmer and more humid air and more Sin (58 W m−2) was absorbed at the 24 K Glacier. The relatively high energy supply led mainly to an increased energy output via turbulent heat fluxes and outgoing longwave radiation, rather than glacier melting beneath the thick debris. The sensitivity experiment showed that melt rates were sensitive to energy supply at debris thicknesses <~10 cm. In contrast, energy supply to the Parlung No. 4 Glacier mainly resulted in snow/ice melting, the magnitude of which was significantly influenced by energy supplied by Sin and the sensible heat flux.
The Guliya ice cap, on the crest of the Kunlun Shan, central Asia, is an ideal site for acquiring ice cores for climate-change studies. Detailed analyses of the precipitation index (glacier accumulation) and the temperature proxy (δ18O) recorded in the Guliya ice core since 300 years BP show that precipitation correlates with temperature in this region. Climate conditions in the Guliya region since 300 years BP can be separated into three periods: warm and wet from AD 1690 to the end of the 18th century; cold and dry from the 19th century to the 1930s; and warm and wet again since the 1940s. During this period, the climate exhibits just two phases: warm/wet and cold/dry. Comparison of the temperatures and the precipitation recorded in the Guliya ice core shows that variations of temperature and precipitation in the region correlate quite well. However, changes in the precipitation regime appear to lag behind those of the temperature by 20–40 years. We believe this results from the larger heat capacity of the ocean relative to that of the land. Hence, ocean temperatures and corresponding evaporation rates change more slowly than do continental conditions. Additionally, however, positive feedback processes, such as increasing temperatures and precipitation improving vegetation, moisture retention and, hence, local convective precipitation probably play an important role. In this paper, we explain how the timescale of evolving vegetation and the feedback mechanism between precipitation and the temperature could help explain why the changes in precipitation lag those of temperature by 20–40 years over long periods. Taking this time lag into account, we should be able to predict future precipitation trends, based on observed temperature trends.
Very heavy snowfall occurred in the Amdo-Nagqu region during winter 1997/98, and enormous numbers of sheep and yaks died due to starvation and low temperatures. Some observation sites of the GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME)-Tibet are located in this area. In this paper, the variation of the ground temperature (GT) on the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau and its relationship with the heavy snow cover is analyzed based on the GAME-Tibet in situ observational data at several sites. The temporal and spatial differences of the variations of the daily maximum, daily minimum and range in GT are significant in 1997/98 in the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau. For example, at site D110, the daily range in GT fluctuated only 0.2˚C from the end of December 1997 to mid-April 1998, but in the north, at site D66, the daily range in GT fluctuated between 5˚C and ∼20˚C at the same depth and during the same period. At the southernmost site, MS3637, the daily range in GT fluctuated within 1.0˚C from mid-November to early February. From mid-February to mid-March, the daily range in GT increased and the peak was 8.1 ˚C. The temperature variation was related to the heavy snowfall that occurred on the northern Tibetan Plateau in winter 1997/98. The snow-cover conditions at different sites on the northern Tibetan Plateau were evaluated quantitatively from the variation of the GT at shallow depths.