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The mitochondrial genome provides important information for phylogenetic analysis and an understanding of evolutionary origin. In this study, the mitochondrial genomes of Ilisha elongata and Setipinna tenuifilis were sequenced, which are typical circular vertebrate mitochondrial genomes composed of 16,770 and 16,805 bp, respectively. The mitogenomes of I. elongata and S. tenuifilis include 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and one control region (CR). Both two species' genome compositions were highly A + T biased and exhibited positive AT-skews and negative GC-skews. The genetic distance and Ka/Ks ratio analyses indicated that 13 PCGs were affected by purifying selection and the selection pressures were different from certain deep-sea fishes, which were most likely due to the difference in their living environment. Results of phylogenetic analysis support close relationships among Chirocentridae, Denticipitidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Pristigasteridae based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs. Within Clupeoidei, I. elongata and S. tenuifilis were most closely related to the family Pristigasteridae and Engraulidae, respectively. These results will help to better understand the evolutionary position of Clupeiformes and provide a reference for further phylogenetic research on Clupeiformes species.
The mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited in animals, despite the fact that paternal mitochondria enter oocytes during fertilization. Autophagy and ubiquitin-mediated degradation are responsible for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the involvement of these two processes in the degradation of paternal mitochondria in mammals is not well understood. We investigated the localization patterns of light chain 3 (LC3) and ubiquitin in mouse and porcine embryos during preimplantation development. We found that LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece at 3 h post-fertilization, and that both proteins were colocalized with paternal mitochondria and removed upon fertilization during the 4-cell stage in mouse and the zygote stage in porcine embryos. Sporadic paternal mitochondria were present beyond the morula stage in the mouse, and paternal mitochondria were restricted to one blastomere of 4-cell embryos. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), did not affect the distribution of paternal mitochondria compared with the positive control, while an autophagy inducer, rapamycin, accelerated the removal of paternal mitochondria compared with the control. After the intracytoplasmic injection of intact spermatozoon into mouse oocytes, LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece, but remnants of undegraded paternal mitochondria were retained until the blastocyst stage. Our results show that paternal mitochondria colocalize with autophagy receptors and ubiquitin and are removed after in vitro fertilization, but some remnants of sperm mitochondrial sheath may persist up to morula stage after intracytoplasmic spermatozoon injection (ICSI).
A useful procedure is described to rapidly obtain Bragg-reflection intensities from the FULLPROF suite, and the Bragg intensities can then be input into the GEST and the PECKCRYST programs for crystal-structure determination of small molecules. An example on using the new procedure for the structure determination from powder diffraction determination of hydrochlorothiazide (C7H8ClN3O4S2) is presented, and the powder-structure results obtained by the PECKCRYST program are in good agreement with previously reported single-crystal results.
Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.
Single crystal Mn thin films have been successfully grown on GaAs(001) substrates for the first time by molecular beam epitaxy. The bulk atomic structure of the manganese films is determined to be the face-centered-cubic metastable phase with the lattice parameter of 0.362 nm, by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex situ x-ray diffraction (XRD).
We have developed a new electrochemical passivation method to obtain a quite stable sulfide layer on GaAs surface. This layer is very thick and contains a mixture of Ga, As, S, O and H compounds. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of such anodic sulfurized GaAs surface shows big intensity enhancement as compared with that of as-etched GaAs samples; No visual intensity decay occurs under laser beam illumination, which maintains for more than seven months. The structure and composition of the passivation layers are investigated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the mechanism of the layer formation is suggested.
Through a post treatment of light emitting porous silicon in boilingwater, a large blue shift of its photoluminescence (PL) spectrum hasbeen observed and a stable blue-green light emission at the peak wavelength down to 500 nm is achieved. The effect of boiling water treatment is suggested to be a kind of oxidation, which could reduce thesize of the Si column, fill up some micropores and strengthen the Siskeleton. The photoluminescence microscopic observation shows that the surface of blue light emitting porous silicon is composed of manysmall uniformly light-emitting domains at the size of several tens of μm. Fourier transform infrared reflection (FTIR) measurements show that the formation of Si-H bonds is not responsible for the visible luminescence in the very thin Si wires.
Formation and electronic structure of the Mn/GaAs(100) interface grown at room temperature are studied by photoemission. The growth at early stage is identified to be in two-dimensional mode. The chemical reaction and the interface diffusion happened between Mn and GaAs are explored in some details. A ferromagnetic phase of Mn overlayer at early stage is deduced from the change of electron density of states near the Fermi edge.
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