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Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) is a novel indicator of visceral obesity, but little is known about the association between CVAI and risk of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the association of CVAI and its 6-year change with hypertension risk and compare the ability of CVAI and other obesity indices to predict hypertension based on the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Study participants were randomly recruited by a cluster sampling procedure, and 10,304 participants ≥18 years were included. Modified Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 2,072 hypertension cases during a median of 6.03 years of follow-up. The RRs (95% CIs) for the highest versus lowest CVAI quartile were 1.29 (1.05-1.59) for men and 1.53 (1.22-1.91) for women. Per-standard deviation (SD) increase in CVAI associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16) and women (1.14, 1.06-1.22). Also, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value for hypertension was higher for CVAI than the four other obesity indices for both sexes (all P < 0.05). Finally, per-SD increase in CVAI change associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16-1.36) and women (1.23, 1.15-1.30). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses. CVAI and its 6-year change are positively associated with hypertension risk. CVAI has better performance in predicting hypertension than other visceral obesity indices for both sexes. The current findings suggest CVAI as a reliable and applicable predictor of hypertension in rural Chinese adults.
Background: To provide a standardized, risk-adjusted method for summarizing antimicrobial use (AU), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the standardized antimicrobial administration ratio, an observed-to-predicted use ratio in which predicted use is estimated from a statistical model accounting for patient locations and hospital characteristics. The infection burden, which could drive AU, was not available for assessment. To inform AU risk adjustment, we evaluated the relationship between the burden of drug-resistant gram-positive infections and the use of anti-MRSA agents. Methods: We analyzed data from acute-care hospitals that reported ≥10 months of hospital-wide AU and microbiologic data to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) from January 2018 through June 2019. Hospital infection burden was estimated using the prevalence of deduplicated positive cultures per 1,000 admissions. Eligible cultures included blood and lower respiratory specimens that yielded oxacillin/cefoxitin–resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and ampicillin-nonsusceptible enterococci, and cerebrospinal fluid that yielded SA. The anti-MRSA use rate is the total antimicrobial days of ceftaroline, dalbavancin, daptomycin, linezolid, oritavancin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, tedizolid, telavancin, and intravenous vancomycin per 1,000 days patients were present. AU rates were modeled using negative binomial regression assessing its association with infection burden and hospital characteristics. Results: Among 182 hospitals, the median (interquartile range, IQR) of anti-MRSA use rate was 86.3 (59.9–105.0), and the median (IQR) prevalence of drug-resistant gram-positive infections was 3.4 (2.1–4.8). Higher prevalence of drug-resistant gram-positive infections was associated with higher use of anti-MRSA agents after adjusting for facility type and percentage of beds in intensive care units (Table 1). Number of hospital beds, average length of stay, and medical school affiliation were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Prevalence of drug-resistant gram-positive infections was independently associated with the use of anti-MRSA agents. Infection burden should be used for risk adjustment in predicting the use of anti-MRSA agents. To make this possible, we recommend that hospitals reporting to NHSN’s AU Option also report microbiologic culture results.
Background:Staphylococcus aureus is frequently implicated in healthcare-associated infections in the United States, and a substantial proportion of these infections are attributed to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although MRSA infections have decreased in health care settings, accurate estimates of the rate of decline call for risk-adjusted methods for calculating the resistant proportion (%R), that is, the proportion of S. aureus resistant to cefoxitin or oxacillin. Risk-adjusted %R also enables more accurate interhospital comparisons and can serve as a quantitative guide and evaluation metric for prevention efforts. Methods: To develop a risk-adjusted %R for S. aureus, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results for S. aureus isolates reported to the CDC NHSN Antimicrobial Resistance Option during 2017–2018. Isolates were reported for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, lower respiratory tract (LRT), and urine. Isolates without cefoxitin and oxacillin test results, or from the facilities that had >10% missing test results were excluded. Test results were differentiated between those associated with community-onset and hospital-onset (HO) infections by defining the latter group as test results for isolates obtained 3 days or more after hospital admission. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with oxacillin/cefoxitin resistance. Hospital, patient and isolate-level variables from NHSN annual survey and AR option were assessed as covariates. Variable entry into the models is based on significance level P < .05. Results: Among 9,992 hospital-onset SA isolates from 9,019 patients in 315 facilities, 5,488 (54.9%) were MRSA. Logistic regression showed that a higher proportion of HO-MRSA was significantly associated with older age, female, particular sources of specimen (urine and LRT), and selected hospital characteristics: hospitals not serving as major teaching hospitals, hospitals with a higher proportion of MRSA among community-onset SA isolates, hospitals with lower percentage of beds in intensive care units, and hospitals outsourcing AST service (Table 1). Conclusions: HO-MRSA is independently associated with community burden of MRSA, older and female patient populations, and hospital teaching status and AST practices, which highlights the importance of public health engagement and regional collaborations to prevent MRSA. To provide a standardized MRSA proportion for public health surveillance, taking some of these factors into account in MRSA proportion standardization should be considered.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between dietary fibre (DF) intake and depressive symptoms in a general adult population in Tianjin, China. A total of 24 306 participants (mean age 41 years; range 18–91 years) were enrolled. DF intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Socio-demographic, behavioural, health status and dietary factors were adjusted. In men, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for total, soluble, vegetable and soya DF, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·83 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·99), 0·74 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·87), 0·79 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·96) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·81), respectively. In women, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for vegetable and soya DF, the OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·93) and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·95), respectively. No association was found between total or soluble DF intake and depressive symptoms in women. No association was found between insoluble, cereal, fruit or tuber DF intake and depressive symptoms in men and women. Linear associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were only detected for soya DF (men, β = –0·148, P < 0·0001; women, β = –0·069, P = 0·04). Results suggest that intake of soluble, vegetable and soya DF was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. These results should be confirmed through prospective and interventional studies.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence has suggested the protective effects of honey consumption against the metabolic syndrome, but the association between honey intake and NAFLD is still unclear. We investigated how the consumption frequency of honey was associated with NAFLD in the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 979 adults aged 20–90 years. NAFLD was diagnosed based on the ultrasound-diagnosed fatty liver without significant alcohol intake and other liver diseases. Diet information, including consumption frequency of honey, was assessed by a validated 100-item FFQ. OR with 95 % CI were calculated by the binary logistic regression model, adjusting for confounding factors identified by the directed acyclic graph. Overall, 6513 adults (29·6 %) had NAFLD. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 time/week of honey, the multivariable OR of NAFLD were 0·86 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·97) for 2–6 times/week and 1·10 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·27) for ≥1 times/d (Pfor trend = 0·90). The results were generally similar in subgroups of BMI at a cut-point of 24·0 kg/m2 (Pfor interaction = 0·10). In this large-scale study, consuming honey 2–6 times/week was inversely associated with NAFLD, whereas consuming honey ≥1 times/d had no association with NAFLD. These results need replication in other large-scale prospective studies.
To investigate the cumulative effects of maternal supplementation with nucleotides in the form of uridine (UR) on fatty acid and amino acid constituents of neonatal piglets, fifty-two sows in late gestation were assigned randomly into the control (CON) group (fed a basal diet) or UR group (fed a basal diet with 150 g/t UR). Samples of neonates were collected during farrowing. Results showed that supplementing with UR in sows’ diet significantly decreased the birth mortality of pigs (P = 0·05), and increased serum total cholesterol, HDL and LDL of neonatal piglets (P < 0·05). Moreover, the amino acid profile of serum and liver of neonatal piglets was affected by the addition of UR in sows’ diets (P < 0·05). Furthermore, an up-regulation of mRNA expression of energy metabolism-related genes, including fatty acid elongase 5, fatty acid desaturase 1, hormone-sensitive lipase and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase, was observed in the liver of neonates from the UR group. Additionally, a decrease in placental gene expression of excitatory amino acid transporters 2, excitatory amino acid transporter 3 and neutral AA transporter 1 in the UR group was concurrently observed (P < 0·05), and higher protein expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B, raptor, PPARα and PPARγ in placenta from the UR group was also observed (P < 0·05). Together, these results showed that maternal UR supplementation could regulate placental nutrient transport, largely in response to an alteration of mTORC1–PPAR signalling, thus regulating the nutrition metabolism of neonatal piglets and improving reproductive performance.
Eating disorders (ED) have increasingly become a global topic of concern for public health. A better understanding of ED incidence is a basic requirement for improving its management. However, the temporal trend of ED incidence in China is still unknown.
The incidence rates of ED from 1990 to 2017 were collected from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 database according to the following: subtype, i.e. anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN); sex; and age group. The average annual percent changes and relative risks were calculated using joinpoint regression and the age–period–cohort model, respectively.
From 1990 to 2017, age-standardized incidence rates of ED continued to increase in males and females, and this variation trend was observed in AN and BN. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that the incidence rates increased in all age groups. Adolescents had the highest risk of developing ED, followed by young adults. Age effects were the most influential risk factor for ED incidence. Period effects showed that the risk of developing ED continuously increased with increasing time periods in BN, but not in ED and AN. Concerning the cohort effects, people born after the 1990s presented a higher risk of ED, though they presented a lower risk of BN as compared to the whole cohort.
ED incidence rates continue to increase in China, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Further etiological studies are needed to explain these increases and to facilitate the early identification of high-risk individuals.
Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein TgROP18 is a polymorphic virulence effector that targets immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) in rodents. Given that IRGs are uniquely diversified in rodents and not in other T. gondii intermediate hosts, the role of TgROP18 in manipulating non-rodent cells is unclear. Here we show that in human cells TgROP18I interacts with the interferon-gamma-inducible protein N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) and that this is a property that is unique to the type I TgROP18 allele. Specifically, when expressed ectopically in mammalian cells only TgROP18I co-immunoprecipitates with NMI in IFN-γ-treated cells, while TgROP18II does not. In parasites expressing TgROP18I or TgROP18II, NMI only co-immunoprecipitates with TgROP18I and this is associated with allele-specific immunolocalization of NMI on the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM). We also found that TgROP18I reduces NMI association with IFN-γ-activated sequences (GAS) in the IRF1 gene promoter. Finally, we determined that polymorphisms in the C-terminal kinase domain of TgROP18I are required for allele-specific effects on NMI. Together, these data further define new host pathway targeted by TgROP18I and provide the first function driven by allelic differences in the highly polymorphic ROP18 locus.
In the current research, a 60-day experiment was conducted with the purpose of exploring the impacts of methionine on growth performance, muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis as well as related signaling pathway. Six diets (iso-nitrogenous) differing in methionine concentrations (2.54, 4.85, 7.43, 10.12, 12.40 and 15.11 g kg-1 diets) were fed to 540 grass carp (178.47 ± 0.36 g). Results showed (P < 0.05) that, compared with methionine deficiency, optimal level of dietary methionine (1) increased feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), specific growth rate (SGR) and percentage weight gain (PWG); (2) increased fish muscle protein, lipid and free amino acid contents, and improved fish muscle fatty acid profile as well as increased protein content in part associated with TORC1/S6K1 signaling pathway; (3) increased the frequency distribution of muscle fibre with >50 µm of diameter; (4) increased type I collagen synthesis partly related to TGF-β1/Smads and CK2/TORC1 signaling pathways. In conclusion, dietary methionine improved muscle growth, which might be due to the regulation of muscle nutritive deposition, and muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis related signal molecules. Finally, according to PWG and muscle collagen content, the methionine requirements for on-growing grass carp (178-626 g) were estimated to be 9.56 g kg-1 diet (33.26 g kg-1 protein of diet) and 9.28 g kg-1 diet (32.29 g kg-1 of dietary protein), respectively.
A 6-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the influences of dietary valine (Val) levels on growth, protein utilisation, immunity, antioxidant status and gut micromorphology of juvenile hybrid groupers. Seven isoenergetic, isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain graded Val levels (1·21, 1·32, 1·45, 1·58, 1·69, 1·82 and 1·94 %, DM basis). Each experimental diet was hand-fed to triplicate groups of twelve hybrid grouper juveniles. Results showed that weight gain percentage (WG%), protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, and feed efficiency were increased as dietary Val level increased, reaching a peak value at 1·58 % dietary Val. The quadratic regression analysis of WG% against dietary Val levels indicated that the optimum dietary Val requirement for hybrid groupers was estimated to be 1·56 %. Gut micromorphology and expression of growth hormone in pituitary, insulin-like growth factor 1, target of rapamycin and S6 kinase 1 in liver were significantly affected by dietary Val levels. In serum, fish fed 1·58 % dietary Val had higher superoxide dismutase, catalase, lysozyme activities and IgM concentrations than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Fish fed 1·58 % dietary Val had higher expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 in head kidney than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Generally, the optimum dietary Val requirement for maximal growth of hybrid groupers was estimated to be 1·56 % of DM, corresponding to 3·16 % of dietary protein, and dietary Val levels affected growth, protein utilisation, immunity and antioxidant status in hybrid groupers.
This paper proposes a novel laser beam tracking mechanism for a mobile target robot that is used in shooting ranges. Compared with other traditional tracking mechanisms and modules, the proposed laser beam tracking mechanism is more flexible and low cost in use. The mechanical design and the working principle of the tracking module are illustrated, and the complete control system of the mobile target robot is introduced in detail. The tracking control includes two main steps: localizing the mobile target robot with regards to the position of the laser beam and tracking the laser beam by the linear quadratic regulator (LQR). First of all, the state function of the control system is built for this tracking system; second, the control law is deduced according to the discretized state function; lastly, the stability of the control method is proved by the Lyapunov theory. The experimental results demonstrate that the Hue, Saturation, Value feature-extracting method is robust and is qualified to be used for localization in the laser beam tracking control. It is verified through experiments that the LQR method is of better performance than the conventional Proportional Derivative control in the aspect of converge time, lateral error control, and distance error control.
Witherite originates from the biochemical sedimentation of barium in sea water. Due to the complexity of the metallogenic environment, witherite appears in many morphologies. However, the relationship between its diverse morphologies and its mineralisation environment is not well understood. In this paper, Ca2+, a common substitute for Ba2+, and mixed protein (egg white) were used to simulate the inorganic and organic environments of witherite mineralisation, respectively. Comparison of samples prepared under different conditions showed that Ca2+ and egg white have relatively independent regulatory effects on the mineralisation of witherite particles. Egg white primarily limits the growth of the nanocrystals, while Ca2+ directs their non-isodiametric growth. Results shows that Ca2+ is distributed along a gradient in nanocrystalline witherite particles, with the Ca2+ content being proportional to the diameter of the nanocrystals. The results of this study shed light on the different roles of organic matter and inorganic ions in the formation of witherite and offer insight into the genesis of its various morphologies.
Based on attachment theory and a social-cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this study examined the roles of parent–child communication, perceived parental depression, and intrusive rumination in the association between insecure attachment to parents and PTSD among adolescents following the Jiuzhaigou earthquake. In this study, 620 adolescents were recruited to complete self-report questionnaires. The results showed that the direct association between anxious attachment and PTSD was significant, but that between avoidant attachment and PTSD was non-significant. In addition, both anxious and avoidant attachment had indirect associations with PTSD via the mediating effects of parent–child communication openness and problems, perceived parental depression, and intrusive rumination. However, the specific paths between anxious and avoidant attachment and PTSD were different. The findings indicated that insecure attachment among adolescents following the earthquake was predictive for their PTSD, and the mechanisms underlying the association between anxious attachment and PTSD and the association between avoidant attachment and PTSD were distinct. To alleviate PTSD, more attention should be paid to improving the quality of parent–child communication for adolescents with avoidant attachment to parents, and to reducing negative cognition in adolescents with anxious attachment.
The sedimentologic fingerprinting in detrital deposit is vital to reconstruct sedimentary environments and discriminate sources. In this study, grain size and microtextural characteristics of quartz from the late Pleistocene hard clay in the Yangtze River delta (YRD) were analyzed by using a laser particle size analyzer and a scanning electron microscope. Subaqueous quartz from the Yangtze River and Yellow River sediments and eolian quartz from the Chinese Loess Plateau loess were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to obtain the microtextural characteristics. Quartz grains of the hard clay were characterized by poor sorting, fine skew, bimodal grain-size distributions, and numerous eolian microtextures. The comparison of the quartz grain characteristics of the hard clay with these in eolian loess indicated that the hard clay belonged to an eolian deposition. Moreover, the fine quartz grains of the hard clay were dominated by eolian microtextural characteristics, representing long-distance transportation. The coarse quartz grains of the hard clay exhibited more subaqueous microtextural characteristics, which indicated that the coarse fraction of the hard clay was derived from the proximal source regions in the YRD. The determination of buried eolian deposition with multiple sources in the YRD implies a southward westerly jet stream, strengthened eolian dust transportation, and extensive aridification in the YRD due to the increased Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REM) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off the mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimension particle-in-cell simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapid expansion. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads to the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, a certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selective adjustment of the corresponding spectra.
The time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures has been considered a predictor of clinical outcomes for bacteremia. This retrospective study aimed to determine the clinical value of TTP for the prognostic assessment of patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. A total of 167 adult patients with E.coli bacteremia identified over a 22-month period in a 3500-bed university teaching hospital in China were studied. The standard cut-off TTP was 11 h in the patient cohort. The septic shock occurred in 27.9% of patients with early TTP (⩽11 h) and in 7.1% of those with a prolonged TTP (>11 h) (P = 0.003). The mortality rate was significantly higher for patients in the early than in the late group (17.7% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that an early TTP (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.70–11.93), intensive care unit admission (OR 8.39, 95% CI 2.01–35.14) and neutropenia (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.55–11.40) were independently associated with septic shock. Likewise, the independent risk factors for mortality of patients were an early TTP (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.04–12.90), intensive care unit admission (OR 6.45; 95% CI 1.14–36.53), a Pittsburgh bacteremia score ⩾2 (OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.22–15.47) and a Charlson Comorbidity Index ⩾3 (OR 11.29, 95% CI 2.81–45.39). Overall, a TTP for blood cultures within 11 h appears to be associated with worse outcomes for patients with E.coli bacteremia.
Tungsten (W) alloy is of difficulty in processing for conventional way because of its high melting point. Here, W alloy sample with the addition of 3 wt% Ta was prepared by selective laser melting. The influence of volumetric energy density (VED) on the surface morphology and the relative density was discussed, and microstructure, phase composition, and microhardness were investigated. The results show that a smooth surface and high relative density (95.79%) can be obtained under optimal VED. The W–Ta substitutional solid solution formed because of the replacement of Ta atom. There are strip and block fine grains in the W–3Ta sample with no significant texture. In addition, subgrain structure with a size of around 1 μm formed inside the strip grain, owing to the large thermal gradient and extremely fast cooling rate. Finally, the W–3Ta alloy shows higher microhardness than that obtained by traditional methods.
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric complication facing stroke survivors and has been associated with increased distress, physical disability, poor rehabilitation, and suicidal ideation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PSD remain unknown, and no objective laboratory-based test is available to aid PSD diagnosis or monitor progression.
Here, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in plasma samples obtained from PSD, stroke, and healthy control subjects.
The significantly differentiated proteins were primarily involved in lipid metabolism and immunoregulation. Six proteins associated with these processes – apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV), apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II), C-reactive protein (CRP), gelsolin, haptoglobin, and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) – were selected for Western blotting validation. ApoA-IV expression was significantly upregulated in PSD as compared to stroke subjects. ApoC-II, LRG, and CRP expression were significantly downregulated in both PSD and HC subjects relative to stroke subjects. Gelsolin and haptoglobin expression were significantly dysregulated across all three groups with the following expression profiles: gelsolin, healthy control > PSD > stroke subjects; haptoglobin, stroke > PSD > healthy control.
Early perturbation of lipid metabolism and immunoregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of PSD. The combination of increased gelsolin levels accompanied by decreased haptoglobin levels shows promise as a plasma-based diagnostic biomarker panel for detecting increased PSD risk in post-stroke patients.