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Why do legislative parties emerge in democracies where elections are contested by individual candidates, rather than national party organizations? And can parties survive in the absence electoral pressure for their members to work on shared political goals? In this article, we examine the emergence and maintenance of party discipline in an atypical legislative context: California's 1878–79 constitutional convention. The unusual partisan alignments among the delegates at the California convention provide us with a unique empirical opportunity to test election- and policy-based explanations for legislative discipline. Our study combines a careful reading of the historical record with a statistical analysis of roll call votes cast at the convention to show how leaders of the “Nonpartisan” majority held together their disparate coalition of Democratic and Republican members in the face of conflicting preferences, ideological divisions, and well-organized political opponents. Our findings provide evidence that cohesive parties can exist even in the absence of broadly shared electoral pressures or policy goals.
One of the most important problems of modern astrometry is constructing of an ideal inertial coordinate system. A bulk of up–to–date star catalogues is referenced to an equatorial frame, which is far from being really inertial, Some attempts were made to remove this defect by excluding both nutation and precession in right ascention [Guinet 1979, Murray, 1990]. This proposal seams to be a compromise between the existing tradition and the new requirements met by the modern astrometry.
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