The aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial, with diet and gut microbiota playing an important role. Nonetheless, there are very few studies, particularly clinical research, which have explored the interaction between diet and gut microbiota. In the current review, we summarise the evidence from clinical trials exploring the interactions between the gut microbiota and diet in the management of IBD. Data from the effect of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) on the gut microbiota of children with active Crohn's disease (CD), receiving induction treatment, offer opportunities to understand the role of gut microbiota in underlying disease pathogenesis and develop novel dietary and pharmacological microbial therapeutics. In contrast, the evidence which links the effectiveness of food-based dietary therapies for IBD with mechanisms involving the gut microbiota is far less convincing. The microbial signals arising from these dietary therapies are inconsistent and vary compared to the effects of effective treatment with EEN in CD.