Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be one of the most effective methods in alleviating the effects of ageing and age-related diseases. Although the protective effects of CR have been reported, the exact molecular mechanism still needs to be clarified. This study aims to determine differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and altered gene pathways due to long-term chronic (CCR) and intermittent (ICR) CR in the brain of mice to understand the preventive roles of miRNAs resulting from long-term CR. Ten weeks old mice were enrolled into three different dietary groups; ad libitum, CCR or ICR, and fed until 82 weeks of age. miRNAs were analysed using GeneChip 4.1 microarray and the target of DE miRNAs was determined using miRNA target databases. Out of a total 3,163 analysed miRNAs, 55 of them were differentially expressed either by different CR protocols or by ageing. Brain samples from the CCR group had increased expression levels of mmu-miR-713 while decreasing expression levels of mmu-miR-184-3p and mmu-miR-351-5p compared to the other dietary groups. Also, current results indicated that CCR showed better preventive effects than that of ICR. Thus, CCR may perform its protective effects by modulating these specific miRNAs since they are shown to play roles in neurogenesis, chromatin and histone regulation. In conclusion, these three miRNAs could be potential targets for neurodegenerative and ageing-related diseases and may play important roles in the protective effects of CR in the brain.