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Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
Background: Globally, surgical site infections (SSIs) not only complicate the surgeries but also lead to $5–10 billion excess health expenditures, along with the increased length of hospital stay. SSI rates have become a universal measure of quality in hospital-based surgical practice because they are probably the most preventable of all healthcare-associated infections. Although, many national regulatory bodies have made it mandatory to report SSI rates, the burden of SSI is still likely to be significant underestimated due to truncated SSI surveillance as well as underestimated postdischarge SSIs. A WHO survey found that in low- to middle-income countries, the incidence of SSIs ranged from 1.2 to 23.6 per 100 surgical procedures. This contrasted with rates between 1.2% and 5.2% in high-income countries. Objectives: We aimed to leverage the existing surveillance capacities at our tertiary-care hospital to estimate the incidence of SSIs in a cohort of trauma patients and to develop and validate an indigenously developed, electronic SSI surveillance system. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a 248-bed apex trauma center for 18 months. This project was a part of an ongoing multicenter study. The demographic details were recorded, and all the patients who underwent surgery (n = 770) were followed up until 90 days after discharge. The associations of occurrence of SSI and various clinico-microbiological variables were studied. Results: In total, 32 (4.2%) patients developed SSI. S. aureus (28.6%) were the predominant pathogen causing SSI, followed by E. coli (14.3%) and K. pneumoniae (14.3%). Among the patients who had SSI, higher SSI rates were associated in patients who were referred from other facilities (P = .03), had wound class-CC (P < .001), were on HBOT (P = .001), were not administered surgical antibiotics (P = .04), were not given antimicrobial coated sutures (P = .03) or advanced dressings (P = .02), had a resurgery (P < .001), had a higher duration of stay in hospital from admission to discharge (P = .002), as well as from procedure to discharge (P = .002). SSI was cured in only 16 patients (50%) by 90 days. SSI data collection, validation, and analyses are essential in developing countries like India. Thus, it is very crucial to implement a surveillance system and a system for reporting SSI rates to surgeons and conduct a robust postdischarge surveillance using trained and committed personnel to generate, apply, and report accurate SSI data.
Background: Candidiasis caused by Candida auris is one of the most serious hospital-acquired infection. Initially, Candida auris was reported to cause local infections; later, invasive candidasis was also reported in which the bloodstream, the central nervous system, kidneys, liver eyes, etc, are invaded. In this study, we evaluated the clinical epidemiology and risk factors in patients hospitalized to trauma center. Methods: This study was conducted at JPN Apex Trauma Centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, which is a 169-bed hospital. All patients who were identiﬁed to have candidemia due to C. auris over a period of 5 years from January 2012 to December 2016 were included. Blood samples were collected in BAC-T-Alert bottles (Bio Merieux, Durham, NC) and isolates were identiﬁed up to the species level by the VITEK 2 (version 8.01, BioMerieux). Conventional identiﬁcation was performed by observing color development on CHROMagar (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). The demographic and clinical data of patients were collected from the hospital information system. Results: Over a period of 5 years, 20 patients admitted to our trauma hospital developed candidemia due to Candida auris. Among them, men were predominant (95%), and the mean (SD) age of the patients was 33 (+15) years. Among these patients, 80% were in hospitalized and 20% were follow-up patients. The median of the total length of stay in the hospital was 34 days (range, 7–122). All of the patients were on mechanical ventilation; 65% patients were catheterized and 75% patients had central line placed. Head injury was the major cause of trauma followed by abdomen, chest, and spine. The overall mortality rate was 40%. Most of the patients (65%) who developed Candida auris infection were immunocompromised. The different comorbidities present were hypertension (35%), diabetes (15%), renal disease (10%), and hepatitis C (5%). Broad-spectrum antibiotics were given: amoxicillin-clavulanate was given to 65% of patients; cefoperazone sulbactam was given to 30% of patients; chloroamphenicol, amicillin-sulbactam, or clindamycin was given to 10% of patients. Antifungal agents like fluconazole or caspofungin were given to 5% of patients. Major surgeries like cranioplasty were performed in 58% of patients. Pancreatectomy, laparotomy, and endoscopic necrosectomy were performed in 42% of patients. Conclusions:Candida auris is one of the dreaded and most commonly spread hospital-acquired fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Broad-spectrum antibiotics use, major surgery, and invasive devices were the most common risk factors for acquiring Candida auris infection.
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