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A higher dietary intake or serum concentration of betaine has been associated with greater lean body mass in middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether betaine intake is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We assessed the association between dietary betaine intake and relative changes in SMM after 3 years in middle-aged adults. A total of 1242 participants aged 41–60 years from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study 2011–2013 and 2014–2017 with body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple linear regression found that energy-adjusted dietary betaine intake was significantly and positively associated with relative changes (i.e. percentage loss or increase) in SMM of legs, limbs and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) over 3 years of follow-up (β 0·322 (se 0·157), 0·309 (se 0·142) and 0·303 (se 0·145), respectively; P < 0·05). The ANCOVA models revealed that participants in the highest betaine tertile had significantly less loss in SMM of limbs and ASMI and more increase in SMM of legs over 3 years of follow-up, compared with those in the bottom betaine tertile (all Ptrend < 0·05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated higher dietary betaine intake may be associated with less loss of SMM of legs, limbs and ASMI in middle-aged adults.
Kazakh (ISO 639-3, kaz) is a Kipchak (Northwestern) Turkic language with approximately ten million speakers (Muhamedowa 2015). While the majority of Kazakh speakers live in the Republic of Kazakhstan, significant Kazakh-speaking populations exist throughout Central Asia. See Figure 1 for a map of the region. Kazakh spoken in Kazakhstan is described as having three or four dialects, but many researchers agree that differences between dialects are small and largely lexical (Kara 2002, Grenoble 2003, Muhamedowa 2015; see Amanzholov 1959 for more on Kazakh dialects).
We show interlayer stacking shifts occur in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) bilayers due to the strain introduced during sample heating, and attributed to rippling of one layer relative to the other. The atomic structure of the interlayer stacking is studied using annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy with an in situ heating holder. Before heating, bilayers show uniform interlayer stacking of AA′ and AB. When heated, contrast change is seen and associated with interlayer stacking changes at the atomic scale due to ripples. When cooled down to room temperature, these contrast features disappear, confirming it is a reversible process that is not related to defects or vacancies. Because the bottom layer is attached to the in situ heating chip made from Si3N4 and the top layer is in contact with the underlying TMD layer with weak van der Waals interaction, the two layers experience different forces during thermal expansion.
Globally, China is among the ‘saltiest’ nations. In order to support current nationwide salt reduction initiatives, we investigated Chinese consumers’ knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to salt intake and salt reduction.
A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was carried out, focusing on salt knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to salt intake and salt reduction, perceptions of salt reduction responsibility and support for different national strategies.
The survey was carried out in China mainland.
Consumers (n 2444) from six of seven major geographical regions in China participated in the survey. After data cleaning, a sample of 2430 was included in the final analysis.
A majority of Chinese consumers believed that salt added during home cooking was the biggest contributor to their salt intake. Knowledge gaps existed in the awareness of salt hidden in certain foods and flavouring products. Chinese consumers in general were interested in lowering their salt intake. They were aware of salt reduction tools, but the adoption level was low. Consumers expressed strong support for promotion of salt-restriction spoons and public education, but not fiscal policies (e.g. salt-related tax or subsidies). In terms of individual differences, education status demonstrated a substantial impact on salt reduction knowledge and behaviour.
There is still big room to ‘shake’ Chinese consumers’ salt habit. The present study provides important evidence and consumer insights to support China’s efforts to meet its salt reduction targets.
Hubei Province is one of the endemic regions with severe schistosomiasis in China. To eliminate schistosomiasis in lake and marshland regions, this study detected hotspots of schistosomiasis cases both spatially and spatiotemporally on the basis of spatial autocorrelation; clustering and outlier, purely spatial and spatiotemporal cluster analyses at the village level from 2013 to 2017 in Hubei Province. The number of cases confirmed positive by an immunodiagnostic test and etiological diagnosis and advanced schistosomiasis cases dramatically declined during the study period. Significant global spatial autocorrelation of schistosomiasis patients was found at the village level in the whole province in 5 years. Clustering and outlier analysis showed that most HH villages were mainly concentrated along the Yangtze River, especially in Jianghan Plain. Spatial and spatiotemporal cluster analyses showed that significant clusters of the schistosomiasis cases were detected at the village level. In general, space and spatiotemporal clustering of schistosomiasis cases at the village level demonstrated a downward trend from 2013 from 2017 in Hubei Province. High-risk regions included Jianghan Plain along the middle reach of Yangtze River and Yangxin County in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in Hubei Province. To eliminate schistosomiasis, precise control and management of schistosomiasis cases should be strictly implemented. Moreover, comprehensive prevention and control measures should be continuously strengthened in these regions.
The Wulanba granite, consisting of biotite monzogranite and syenogranite, is located in the southern part of the Great Xing’an Range, NE China. Whole-rock major- and trace-element geochemistry suggests the Wulanba granite is a high-K–shoshonitic, slightly peraluminous and highly differentiated I-type granite. The Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes indicate that it originated from partial melting of juvenile crust derived from the depleted mantle with a minor input of old crust. The relatively young T2DM and tDM2 ages indicate it was most likely derived from a Late Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic source. We have demonstrated that the biotite monzogranite is the ore-related intrusion of the Haobugao Zn–Fe mineralization based on the following geological, geochronological and geochemical evidence: (1) the chalcopyrite/pyrite in the biotite monzogranite and the continuous mineralization of drill core ZK2508; (2) the consistence of the emplacement age of the biotite monzogranite (~141–140/138 Ma) with the skarn mineralization age (~142 Ma); and (3) the presence of rich ore-forming elements (Fe–Zn–Cu) in the biotite monzogranite, and the similar Pb compositions of the sulfides from the Haobugao deposit and the biotite monzogranite. Compared to the barren syenogranite, the fertile biotite monzogranite is more oxidized, while the edges of the apatite grains in the biotite monzogranite are more oxidized than the centres. The average F/Cl ratio of the fertile biotite monzogranite (~123.45) is much higher than that of the barren syenogranite (~73.98). We conclude that these differences reflect unique geochemical signatures, and the geochemical composition of the apatite can be used to infer the economic potential of granites.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Concerns over food safety in China not only direct public attention to negative
incidents, but also trigger the government's scrutiny of implicated
firms, particularly MNCs. The question of how to repair legitimacy after media
coverage of negative incidents has become a critical issue for MNCs. Although
the factors for MNCs’ public crises have been identified, how local
contexts and mechanisms shape repair approaches remain unclear. To address this
research gap, we conducted a study of Walmart China's approaches
associated with two negative incidents across two regions. We found that the
negative incidents can be framed differently depending on the local
environment's unfavorability for MNCs. Specifically, the negative
framing gave rise to varying degrees of legitimacy loss and offered different
leeway for MNCs to repair their legitimacy. We also identified the varied
outcomes of different repair approaches. By revealing the linkages among local
context, framing, legitimacy repair, and its outcomes, our study contributes to
research on MNCs’ legitimacy management under institutional
complexity and underscores the China context for legitimacy maintenance. We also
offer insights that advance the institutional approach to legitimacy repair in
this context. Last, we reflect on the techniques for conducting qualitative
research in China.
The antibacterial hydrogels can be widely used in the biomedical area owing to their excellent properties. The main limitation of antibacterial hydrogels is their poor mechanical strength. In this study, the novel hydrogels were fabricated with a mixture of silk fibroin (SF), chitosan (CH), agarose (AG), and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) via facile reaction condition without inorganic substances. The mechanical property of these fabricated hydrogels can be modulated by the concentration of SF or AG. The rheological studies demonstrated enhanced elasticity of CH-doped hydrogels. Because of the presence of CH and Ag in hydrogels, the antimicrobial property against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was exhibited. Cytocompatibility test proved the very low toxic nature of the hydrogels. In addition, these composite hydrogels have a smaller porosity, higher swelling ratio, and good compatibility, indicating their great potential for biomedical application.
Energy restriction (ER) has been widely studied as a novel intervention, and its ability to prolong life has been fully demonstrated. For example, ER can significantly extend the lifespans of model flies, worms, rodents and other mammals. The role of ER in renal protection has also been elucidated. In preclinical studies, adjusting total energy intake or consumption of specific nutrients has prophylactic or therapeutic effects on ageing-related kidney disease and acute and chronic kidney injury. Amino acid restriction has gradually attracted attention. ER mimetics have also been studied in depth. The protective mechanisms of ER and ER mimetics for renal injury include increasing AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuin type 1 (Sirt1) levels and autophagy and reducing mammalian target of rapamycin, inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the renal protective effect of ER has mostly been investigated in rodent models, and the role of ER in patients cannot be determined due to the lack of large randomised controlled trials. To protect the kidney, the mechanism of ER must be thoroughly researched, and more accurate diet or drug interventions need to be identified.
Experimental and numerical investigations on the interaction of a planar shock wave with two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) light gas cylinders are performed. The effects of initial interface curvature on flow morphology, wave pattern, vorticity distribution and interface movement are emphasized. In experiments, a wire-restriction method based on the soap film technique is employed to generate N
cylinders surrounded by SF
with well-characterized shapes, including a convex cylinder, a concave cylinder with a minimum-surface feature and a 2-D cylinder. The high-speed schlieren pictures demonstrate that fewer disturbance waves exist in the flow field and the evolving interfaces develop in a more symmetrical way relative to previous studies. By combining the high-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory construction with the double-flux scheme, numerical simulation is conducted to explore the detailed 3-D flow structures. It is indicated that the shape and the size of 3-D gas cylinders in different planes along the vertical direction change gradually due to the existence of both horizontal and vertical velocities of the flow. At very early stages, pressure oscillations in the vicinity of evolving interfaces induced by complex waves contribute much to the deformation of the 3-D gas cylinders. As time proceeds, the development of the shocked volume would be dominated by the baroclinic vorticity deposited on the interface. In comparison with the 2-D case, the oppositely (or identically) signed principal curvatures of the concave (or convex) SF
boundary cause complex high pressure zones and additional vorticity deposition, and the upstream interface from the symmetric slice of the concave (or convex) N
cylinder moves with an inhibition (or a promotion). Finally, a generalized 3-D theoretical model is proposed for predicting the upstream interface movements of different gas cylinders and the present experimental and numerical findings are well predicted.