High-resolution powder X-ray diffraction has been used to determine the crystal structure of silver behenate, [Ag(O2C(CH2)20CH3]2. Using CASTEP density functional plane wave pseudopotential techniques to obtain an optimized structural model, Rietveld refinement of the structure gives Rwp = 8.66%. The unit cell is triclinic, space group P1, with cell dimensions of a = 4.1769(2) Å, b = 4.7218(2) Å, c = 58.3385(1) Å, α = 89.440(3)°, β = 89.634(3)°, γ = 75.854(1)°. The structure is characterized by an 8-membered ring dimer of Ag atoms and carboxyl groups with a fully extended all-trans configuration of the alkyl side chains. The dimers are joined by four-membered Ag-O rings creating a polymeric network, giving rise to one-dimensional chains along the b-axis. This structure is supported by EXAFS measurements of the local structure around the silver atoms and IR measurements.