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Both infrared absorption (IR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopies have been used to investigate the complicated structure of nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride/amorphous hydro-genated boron nitride thin films. The ESR spectra from this material consist of a component with a four-line hyperfine structure and/or a component with a ten-line hyperfine structure superimposed upon a broad central line. The hyperfine structures are associated with defect centers located in the nanocrystalline phase, whereas the broad line is attributed to dangling bonds in the amorphous phase. The IR spectra consist of three lines around 1400 cm−1: the lines at 1263 and 1505 cm−1 originate in a boron-poor amorphous hydrogenated boron nitride region; the line at 1371 cm−1, in a boron-rich amorphous hydrogenated boron nitride region. These results, together with previously reported electron diffraction spectra, suggest the following picture: small (2.5 nm) nanocrys-tallites of cubic boron nitride (about 5% of the material) are imbedded in a mixed amorphous phase. The amorphous region can be approximated by a mixture of boron-rich and boron-poor amorphous hydrogenated boron nitride.
Previous studies have reported the association between advanced paternal
age at birth and the risk of autistic-spectrum disorder in offspring,
including offspring with intellectual disability.
To test whether an association between advanced paternal age at birth is
found in offspring with high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder (i.e.
offspring without intellectual disability).
A case–control study was conducted in Japan. The participants consisted
of individuals with full-scale IQ ⩾ 70, with a DSM–IV autistic disorder
or related diagnosis. Unrelated healthy volunteers were recruited as
controls. Parental ages were divided into tertiles (i.e. three age
classes). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using
logistic regression analyses, with an adjustment for age, gender and
Eighty-four individuals with autistic-spectrum disorder but without
intellectual disability and 208 healthy controls were enrolled. Increased
paternal, but not maternal, age was associated with an elevated risk of
high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder. A one-level advance in
paternal age class corresponded to a 1.8-fold increase in risk, after
adjustment for covariates.
Advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk for
high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder.
We observed a preformed plasma of an aluminum slab target produced by a high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser. The expansion length of the preformed plasma at the electron density of 3 × 1018 cm−3, which was the detection limit, was around 100 μm measured with a laser interferometer. In order to characterize quantitatively and to control the preformed plasmas, we perform a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation. The expansion length of the preformed plasma was almost the same as the experimental result, if we assumed that the amplified spontaneous emission lasted 3.5 ns before the main pulse arrived.
High-energy protons are generated by focusing an ultrashort pulsed
high intensity laser at the Advanced Photon Research Center, JAERI-Kansai
onto thin (thickness <10 μm) Tantalum targets. The laser
intensities are about 4 × 1018 W/cm2. The
prepulse level of the laser pulse is measured with combination of a PIN
photo diode and a cross correlator and is less than 10−6.
A quarter-wave plate is installed into the laser beam line to create
circularly polarized pulses. Collimated high energy protons are observed
with CH coated Tantalum targets irradiated with the circularly polarized
laser pulses. The beam divergence of the generated proton beam is measured
with a CR-39 track detector and is about 6 mrad.
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