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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
This chapter reviews the systematics of partial melting of mantle lithologies – like peridotite and eclogite – in the presence of carbon dioxide. It discusses the composition of mantle-derived magmas generated in the presence of carbon dioxide and whether magmas erupted on Earth’s surface resemble carbonated magmas from the mantle. It reviews how the production of carbon dioxide-rich magma in the mantle varies as a function of tectonic settings – beneath continents and oceans and in subduction zones – and time.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
We question Newton’s inverse square law of universal gravitation in the light of recent, alternative formulations. In addition, we present numerical simulations of galaxy interactions which were used in an attempt to distinguish between an inverse square law and an inverse linear law. We conclude that an inverse linear relation is as compatible with the observational data on interacting galaxy systems as the inverse square law.
Pollack et al. [Icarus 19, 372 (1973)] have reported the optical constants for obsidian, basalt, andesite and basaltic glass over the wavelength range 0.2 to 50 μm, and Lamy [Icarus 34, 68 (1978)] reported the optical constants from 0.10 to 0.44 μ for obsidian, basalt, and basaltic glass. We have revised the former measurements for basaltic glass and extended them into the extreme UV to 0.0173 μ.
Nearly eighty years ago W. M. Lindsay began his valuable little Introduction to Latin Textual Emendation with the observation that ‘There is no Latin author the study of whose text has at once such interest and such value for students of textual emendation as Plautus. For the text of Plautus is on the one hand not nearly so certain as the text of Virgil …, nor on the other so hopelessly uncertain as the text of Propertius … It is still full of difficulties, in spite of the labours of a large number of scholars for a large number of years, though each month … sees a difficulty removed … We may hope to attain before long to a completely satisfactory text’. These were optimistic words, and Lindsay himself, in his subsequent editions, first of the Captivi and then of the complete plays, did much to advance Plautine textual studies along the hopeful lines he prophesied.
De Die Natali is an obscure little treatise on human life, the influence of the planets and the divisions of time, written by the Roman grammarian Censorinus and dedicated to Q. Caerellius for his forty-ninth birthday in A.D. 238. It was not a very popular work before the fifteenth century, and there is no reason why it should have been. Even its Italian revival was probably due to its brevity, which encouraged its copying as an adjunct to the larger, more interesting works which accompanied it in the earliest manuscripts. The increasing popularity of astrology may also have influenced its dissemination during the Renaissance. It was not, however, completely lost from sight during Europe’s first millennium. The study of its early transmission and use throws some interesting light upon the revival of classical literature in that period, though it is unlikely to improve the state in which the text has come down to us.
40Ar/39Ar in situ UV laser ablation of white mica, Rb–Sr mineral isochrons and zircon fission track dating were applied to determine ages of very low- to low-grade metamorphic processes at 3.5±0.4 kbar, 280±30°C in the Avalonian Mira terrane of SE Cape Breton Island (Nova Scotia). The Mira terrane comprises Neoproterozoic volcanic-arc rocks overlain by Cambrian sedimentary rocks. Crystallization of metamorphic white mica was dated in six metavolcanic samples by 40Ar/39Ar spot age peaks between 396±3 and 363±14 Ma. Rb–Sr systematics of minerals and mineral aggregates yielded two isochrons at 389±7 Ma and 365±8 Ma, corroborating equilibrium conditions during very low- to low-grade metamorphism. The dated white mica is oriented parallel to foliations produced by sinistral strike-slip faulting and/or folding related to the Middle–Late Devonian transpressive assembly of Avalonian terranes during convergence and emplacement of the neighbouring Meguma terrane. Exhumation occurred earlier in the NW Mira terrane than in the SE. Transpression was related to the closure of the Rheic Ocean between Gondwana and Laurussia by NW-directed convergence. The 40Ar/39Ar spot age spectra also display relict age peaks at 477–465 Ma, 439 Ma and 420–428 Ma attributed to deformation and fluid access, possibly related to the collision of Avalonia with composite Laurentia or to earlier Ordovician–Silurian rifting. Fission track ages of zircon from Mira terrane samples range between 242±18 and 225±21 Ma and reflect late Palaeozoic reburial and reheating close to previous peak metamorphic temperatures under fluid-absent conditions during rifting prior to opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean.
The paper is an investigation into the withdrawal rates of seven Scottish Offices and covers the years 1972-76 with an appendix giving the results for 1977.
The rates were basically analysed by class and duration with further investigations mainly on the 1976 data by age at entry, sex, size of sum assured, premium paying term, premium payment frequency and by type of agent introducing the business. Comparisons were made of the level of withdrawal rates among the various Offices and also the variations from year to year separately. A graduation of the combined data for 1975 and 1976 for each of the five main classes was carried out.
1.1.1 The Faculty of Actuaries' Marketing Research Group was set up in May 1988 to research areas of interest to that new breed of Fellow, the “Marketing Actuary”.
In the initial meetings two general areas of interest were identified—namely the marketing of the actuarial profession, and the marketing of financial services products.
Whilst the group has spent time on both subjects this first paper is concerned with the marketing of the actuarial profession.
1.1.2 We felt that the starting point for a marketing audit of the profession was to conduct research amongst the members. In addition we have investigated the coverage achieved by the profession in the media, and looked into developments in North America, including a survey which ranked the actuarial profession against other forms of employment.
The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating diets to a accurately balanced density of Ca : nPP considering the biological importance of both minerals.
A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each macro mineral.
M. fortuitum is a rapidly growing mycobacterium associated with community-acquired and nosocomial wound, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections. It has been postulated that water has been the source of infection especially in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to determine if municipal water may be the source of community-acquired or nosocomial infections in the Brisbane area. Between 2007 and 2009, 20 strains of M. fortuitum were recovered from municipal water and 53 patients’ isolates were submitted to the reference laboratory. A wide variation in strain types was identified using repetitive element sequence-based PCR, with 13 clusters of ⩾2 indistinguishable isolates, and 28 patterns consisting of individual isolates. The clusters could be grouped into seven similar groups (>95% similarity). Municipal water and clinical isolates collected during the same time period and from the same geographical area consisted of different strain types, making municipal water an unlikely source of sporadic human infection.
Interventions for reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) healthcare-associated disease require outcome assessment; this is typically done by manual chart review to determine infection, which can be labor intensive. The purpose of this study was to validate electronic tools for MRSA healthcare-associated infection (HAI) trending that can replace manual medical record review.
Design and Setting.
This was an observational study comparing manual medical record review with 3 electronic methods: raw culture data from the laboratory information system (LIS) in use by our healthcare organization, LIS data combined with admission-discharge-transfer (ADT) data to determine which cultures were healthcare associated (LIS + ADT), and the CareFusion MedMined Nosocomial Infection Marker (NIM). Each method was used for the same 7-year period from August 2003 through July 2010.
The data set was from a 3-hospital organization covering 342,492 admissions.
Correlation coefficients for raw LIS, LIS + ADT, and NIM were 0.976, 0.957, and 0.953, respectively, when assessed on an annual basis. Quarterly performance for disease trending was also good, with R2 values exceeding 0.7 for all methods.
The electronic tools accurately identified trends in MRSA HAI incidence density when all infections were combined as quarterly or annual data; the performance is excellent when annual assessment is done. These electronic surveillance systems can significantly reduce (93% [in-house-developed program] to more than 99.9999% [commercially available systems]) the personnel resources needed to monitor the impact of a disease control program.
This paper presents the results of research into the marketing of the actuarial profession including a SWOT analysis, public awareness and image of the profession amongst target groups (general public, undergraduates, journalists, company directors, pension scheme trustees and insurance intermediaries), and the desire to allocate more resources to the profession's public awareness and image. The paper also contains an analysis of the national press coverage achieved by the profession and reports on developments in North America where a task force on strengthening the actuarial profession has been set up.