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Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
To investigate the predictive ability of the previously established global cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) burden scale on long-term clinical outcomes in a longitudinal study of Asian elderly participants across the spectrum of cognitive impairment.
A case-control study was conducted over a 2-year period involving participants with no cognitive impairment, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Annually, cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale was used to stage disease severity.
Of 314 participants, 102 had none/very mild CeVD, 31 mild CeVD, 94 moderate CeVD, and 87 severe CeVD at baseline. There was a 1.14 and 1.42 units decline per year on global cognitive z-scores in moderate and severe CeVD groups, respectively, compared to none/very mild CeVD. Moderate-severe CeVD predicted significant functional deterioration at year 2 (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4), and conversion to AD (HR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.7–22.5), independent of medial temporal atrophy.
The global CeVD burden scale predicts poor long-term clinical outcome independent of neurodegenerative markers. Furthermore, CeVD severity affects the rate of cognitive and functional deterioration. Hence, cerebrovascular burden, which is potentially preventable, is a strong prognostic indicator, both at preclinical and clinical stages of AD, independent of neurodegenerative processes.
Excavation of the Han Dynasty chambered tomb at Laoguanshan in Chengdu, south-west China, has provided the earliest known evidence of pattern loom technology. Four model looms, along with accompanying artefacts and figurines relating to the weaving process, give insight into the technique of jin silk production. The discovery is hugely significant as it provides the first direct evidence of pattern-weave textile production in ancient China. Jin silk, made using this method, was both valuable and widely distributed, and the design of the machine influenced the invention of later looms and the spread of technology throughout Eurasia and Europe, representing great technological accomplishment for the second century BC.
Most current prevalent iterative methods can be classified into the socalled extended Krylov subspace methods, a class of iterative methods which do not fall into this category are also proposed in this paper. Comparing with traditional Krylov subspace methods which always depend on the matrix-vector multiplication with a fixed matrix, the newly introduced methods (the so-called (progressively) accumulated projection methods, or AP (PAP) for short) use a projection matrix which varies in every iteration to form a subspace from which an approximate solution is sought. More importantly an accelerative approach (called APAP) is introduced to improve the convergence of PAP method. Numerical experiments demonstrate some surprisingly improved convergence behavior. Comparison between benchmark extended Krylov subspace methods (Block Jacobi and GMRES) are made and one can also see remarkable advantage of APAP in some examples. APAP is also used to solve systems with extremely ill-conditioned coefficient matrix (the Hilbert matrix) and numerical experiments shows that it can bring very satisfactory results even when the size of system is up to a few thousands.
The validity and reliability of the informant AD8 in primary healthcare has not been established. Therefore, the present study examined the validity and reliability of the informant AD8 in government subsidized primary healthcare centers in Singapore.
Eligible patients (≥60 years old) were recruited from primary healthcare centers and their informants received the AD8. Patient-informant dyads who agreed for further cognitive assessments received the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and a locally validated formal neuropsychological battery at a research center in a tertiary hospital.
1,082 informants completed AD8 assessment at two primary healthcare centers. Of these, 309 patients-informant dyads were further assessed, of whom 243 (78.6%) were CDR = 0; 22 (7.1%) were CDR = 0.5; and 44 (14.2%) were CDR≥1. The mean administration time of the informant AD8 was 2.3 ± 1.0 minutes. The informant AD8 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.85); inter-rater reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.85); and test–retest reliability (weighted κ = 0.80). Concurrent validity, as measured by the correlation between total AD8 scores and CDR global (R = 0.65, p < 0.001), CDR sum of boxes (R = 0.60, p < 0.001), MMSE (R = −0.39, p < 0.001), MoCA (R = −0.41, p < 0.001), as well as the formal neuropsychological battery (R = −0.46, p < 0.001), was good and consistent with previous studies. Construct validity, as measured by convergent validity (R ≥ 0.4) between individual items of AD8 with CDR and neuropsychological domains was acceptable.
The informant AD8 demonstrated good concurrent and construct validity and is a reliable measure to detect cognitive dysfunction in primary healthcare.
To investigate the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and sub-syndromes in elderly community-dwelling Asians with varying severity of cognitive impairment.
Chinese and Malay participants (n = 613) from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore (EDIS) Study aged ≥ 60 years underwent clinical examination, neuropsychological testing, and NPS assessment using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), including CIND-mild and CIND-moderate, and dementia were made using established criteria.
A significant increase in the numbers of NPS was observed accompanying with increasing severity of cognitive impairment (p < 0.001). Compared to those with NCI/CIND-mild, participants with CIND-moderate [Odds ratio (OR): 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8–10.0] or dementia [OR: 9.2, 95% CI: 2.3–36.0] were more likely to have two or more neuropsychiatric sub-syndromes. Participants with CIND-moderate were more likely to have hyperactivity [OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0–3.8] and apathy [OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.0–8.4] sub-syndromes, whereas patients with dementia were more likely to have psychosis [OR: 6.9, 95% CI: 2.4–20.1], affective (OR: 8.7, 95% CI: 1.8–42.9), and hyperactivity (OR: 5.4, 95% CI: 1.8–16.1). Furthermore, executive dysfunction and visual memory impairment were associated with the presence of three neuropsychiatric sub-syndromes; whist language and visuomotor speed impairment were related to the presence of two sub-syndromes. By contrast, impairment in attention, verbal memory, and visuoconstruction were not associated with any of the sub-syndromes.
The presence of NPS and sub-syndromes increase with increasing severities of cognitive impairment, and different neuropsychiatric syndromes are associated with specific impairment on cognitive domains in community-dwelling Asian elderly.
The poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) based ferroelectric and relaxor materials have been proved to be good electrocaloric (EC) materials. To further enhance the EC effect in ferroelectric relaxor terpolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)), composites such as polymer-polymer blends and nanocomposites filled with inorganic nanoparticles are fabricated and investigated. It is found that the addition of small amount of filler (such as P(VDF-TrFE) or nano-ZrO2) can increase terpolymer’s crystallinity and enhance its relaxor behavior through interface couplings. The increased crystallinity and enhanced relaxor behavior together result in enhanced electrocaloric effect. The results demonstrate the promise of composite approaches in tailoring and enhancing ECE in the relaxor terpolymers.
An acceleration scheme based on stationary iterative methods is presented for solving linear system of equations. Unlike Chebyshev semi-iterative method which requires accurate estimation of the bounds for iterative matrix eigenvalues, we use a wide range of Chebyshev-like polynomials for the accelerating process without estimating the bounds of the iterative matrix. A detailed error analysis is presented and convergence rates are obtained. Numerical experiments are carried out and comparisons with classical Jacobi and Chebyshev semi-iterative methods are provided.
In this paper, we present a superconvergence result for the mixed finite element approximations of general second order elliptic eigenvalue problems. It is known that a superconvergence result has been given by Durán et al. [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 9 (1999) 1165–1178] and Gardini [ESAIM: M2AN 43 (2009) 853–865] for the lowest order Raviart-Thomas approximation of Laplace eigenvalue problems. In this work, we introduce a new way to derive the superconvergence of general second order elliptic eigenvalue problems by general mixed finite element methods which have the commuting diagram property. Some numerical experiments are given to confirm the theoretical analysis.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are thought to decrease the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, findings have been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin and AMD risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching five databases up to April 2010. Reference lists of articles were retrieved, and experts were contacted. Literature search, data extraction and study quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers and results were pooled quantitatively using meta-analysis methods. The potential sources of heterogeneity and publication bias were also estimated. The search yielded six longitudinal cohort studies. The pooled relative risk (RR) for early AMD, comparing the highest with the lowest category of lutein and zeaxanthin intake, was 0·96 (95 % CI 0·78, 1·17). Dietary intake of these carotenoids was significantly related with a reduction in risk of late AMD (RR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·97); and a statistically significant inverse association was observed between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and neovascular AMD risk (RR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·92). The results were essentially consistent among subgroups stratified by participant characteristics. The findings of the present meta-analysis indicate that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin is not significantly associated with a reduced risk of early AMD, whereas an increase in the intake of these carotenoids may be protective against late AMD. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these relationships.
In this paper, a new type of gradient recovery method based on vertex-edge-face interpolation is introduced and analyzed. This method gives a new way to recover gradient approximations and has the same simplicity, efficiency, and superconvergence properties as those of superconvergence patch recovery method and polynomial preserving recovery method. Here, we introduce the recovery technique and analyze its superconvergence properties. We also show a simple application in the a posteriori error estimates. Some numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of this recovery method.
The redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) is a freshwater crayfish
species endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea that is the focus of a growing
culture industry in number of regions around the world. Here we isolated and characterized
15 microsatellite loci from Cherax quadricarinatus and tested variability
of the loci in 66 unrelated cultured individuals. Thirteen of 15 microsatellite loci were
polymorphic. Number of alleles per locus ranged from two to seven while observed and
expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.172 to 0.985 and from 0.373 to 0.778,
respectively. Eleven loci conformed to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the sampled
population. These microsatellite loci developed here provide an important resource for
studying genetic diversity and population structure in redclaw crayfish and potentially in
other related species.
Using vinyl-silsesquioxane modified with various amounts of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium tetrabutoxide (TTB), two kinds of hybrid films, film-vinyl-silsesquioxane-TEOS (f-VSTE) and film-vinyl-silsesquioxane-TTB (f-VSTT), were prepared. The average transparency (AT) of the modified films was measured in the ranges of the visible light region (400–750 nm) and in the near-infrared region (750–2500 nm). The AT values in these ranges are about 88% to 94%, indicating that these high-AT films can provide crops with growth energy and improvement of the photosynthetic process efficiency. The TEOS additions result in a hybrid structure (containing SiO2); an adequate addition can cause an increase in the AT radiation from sunlight. On the other hand, the TTB additions result in a hybrid structure (containing TiO2) that causes a decrease in the AT. These results were validated using molecular dynamic simulation and were calculated (with Materials Stutio software) using the density of states and the energy-band structure of the vinyl-SSO, SiO2, and TiO2 building blocks.
The statistical analysis of heating effect and the cross-correlation analysis of both electron temperature and loop voltage have been done during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). The behavior of runaway electrons in the flat-top phase during ECRH are analyzed using experimental data. It is shown that the runaway population is indeed suppressed or even quenched when the toroidal electric field ET is reduced below the threshold electric field Eth by high-power and long-duration ECRH. The physical mechanism of runaway suppression is explored by the resonant interaction between the electron cyclotron waves and the energetic runaway electrons.
A deferred correction procedure for the approximate solution of the second-kind equation is introduced, compared with an extrapolation procedure, and illustrated for integral and differential equations.
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