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Burning postharvest sugarcane residue is a standard practice to remove extraneous leaf material before spring regrowth. Live-fires were simulated from field-collected postharvest sugarcane residue and seeds of divine nightshade and itchgrass were exposed to dry and moistened postharvest residue (PHR) at four densities (6.1, 12.1, 18.2, and 24.2 Mg ha−1) and a nonburned control. The moisture content of residue exposed to simulated rainfall was 14% more in Experiment 2 than Experiment 1; however, burning PHR with 44% moisture when wind speeds were lower allowed the fire to continue and created a smoldering effect that reduced weed emergence by 23% when compared with burning PHR with 30% moisture during breezy conditions. The moistened 6.1 Mg ha−1 PHR treatment resulted in 53% more divine nightshade and itchgrass emergence when compared with dry 6.1 Mg ha−1 PHR after burning, and greater emergence was attributed to more seed survival for divine nightshade than itchgrass. The PHR moisture condition failed to influence the burn duration; however, the burn duration increased 103% and 56% as the amount of PHR increased from 6.1 to 12.1 Mg ha−1 and 12.1 to 18.2 Mg ha−1, respectively. The combination of high wind speeds and moistened PHR did not enhance the maximum burn temperature near the soil surface, but surface-deposited divine nightshade and itchgrass seeds were susceptible to prolonged exposure times at 100 C. Burning PHR from fields with poor stands or older ratoon, especially when PHR is abundantly wet, will not produce temperatures lethal to divine nightshade and itchgrass seeds. The fluid-filled and fleshy content that comprises divine nightshade fruit protected seed from short durations of high temperatures, but may not insulate seeds long enough when exposed to a smoldering fire.
The current study explored the experiences and aspirations of a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with neurocognitive disability residing in a homeless shelter in regional Queensland, Australia. Neurocognitive disability (NCD) refers to any acquired disorder or injury to the brain where the primary clinical deficit is in cognitive function.
The data reported on in this paper emerged from a broader study that aimed to understand the extent and nature of neurocognitive disability amongst homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The broader study found high levels of NCD which impacted on people’s ability to participate in society. As part of the study, qualitative information was sought regarding participant life experiences. A culturally safe and acceptable structure of “past, present and future” was applied to open-ended questions.
Thematic analysis of the data identified four broad themes of i) normalisation of illness and disability; ii) trauma and loss; iii) socioeconomic disadvantage; and iv) hope and disempowerment. This paper reports on these themes and experiences, which occurred across the life span, intersected with NCD, and contributed to what we have termed ‘complex disablement’ amongst this cohort.
While causal links between life experience, disability and disablement are not always clear, our findings suggest that attempts to address homelessness must engage with this complexity. The application of holistic, intersectoral supports, which encompass culturally informed, community driven approaches are needed. Understanding the impacts of individual and intergenerational trauma is crucial to safe and effective service provision for this cohort.
Although restricting formal voting rights—voter suppression—is not uncommon in democracies, its incidence and form vary widely. Intuitively, when competing elites believe that the benefits of reducing voting by opponents outweigh the costs of voter suppression, it is more likely to occur. Internal political and state capacity and external actors, however, influence the form that voter suppression takes. When elites competing for office lack the ability to enact laws restricting voting due to limited internal capacity, or external actors are able to limit the ability of governments to use laws to suppress voting, suppression is likely to be ad hoc, decentralized, and potentially violent. As political and state capacity increase and external constraints decrease, voter suppression will shift from decentralized and potentially violent to centralized and mostly non-violent. We illustrate our arguments by analyzing the transition from decentralized, violent voter suppression through the use of lynchings (and associated violence) to the centralized, less violent suppression of black voting in the post-Reconstruction South. We also place the most recent wave of U.S. state voter suppression laws into broader context using our theoretical framework.
In R. L. Wilder's book  the open and closed generalized manifolds are extensively studied. However, no study is made of the generalized manifold with boundary nor is a definition of such a space given except in the case of the generalized closed n-cell. A definition of a generalized manifold with boundary was given by the author in his paper . Before undertaking the study of further properties of these manifolds it seems appropriate to characterize the manifolds with boundary in terms of the open and closed manifolds of Wilder. It is to that purpose that this paper is directed and in particular the generalized closed n-cell of Wilder is characterized as a special manifold with boundary.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Shallow ice cores were obtained from widely distributed sites across the West Antarctic ice sheet, as part of the United States portion of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE) program. The US ITASE cores have been dated by annual-layer counting, primarily through the identification of summer peaks in non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO42–) concentration. Absolute dating accuracy of better than 2 years and relative dating accuracy better than 1 year is demonstrated by the identification of multiple volcanic marker horizons in each of the cores, Tambora, Indonesia (1815), being the most prominent. Independent validation is provided by the tracing of isochronal layers from site to site using high-frequency ice-penetrating radar observations, and by the timing of mid-winter warming events in stable-isotope ratios, which demonstrate significantly better than 1 year accuracy in the last 20 years. Dating precision to ±1 month is demonstrated by the occurrence of summer nitrate peaks and stable-isotope ratios in phase with nssSO42–, and winter-time sea-salt peaks out of phase, with phase variation of <1 month. Dating precision and accuracy are uniform with depth, for at least the last 100 years.
Annually dated ice cores from West and East Antarctica provide proxies for past changes in atmospheric circulation over Antarctica and portions of the Southern Ocean, temperature in coastal West and East Antarctica, and the frequency of South Polar penetration of El Niño events. During the period AD 1700–1850, atmospheric circulation over the Antarctic and at least portions of the Southern Hemisphere underwent a mode switch departing from the out-of-phase alternation of multi-decadal long phases of EOF1 and EOF2 modes of the 850 hPa field over the Southern Hemisphere (as defined in the recent record by Thompson and Wallace, 2000; Thompson and Solomon, 2002) that characterizes the remainder of the 700 year long record. From AD 1700 to 1850, lower-tropospheric circulation was replaced by in-phase behavior of the Amundsen Sea Low component of EOF2 and the East Antarctic High component of EOF1. During the first phase of the mode switch, both West and East Antarctic temperatures declined, potentially in response to the increased extent of sea ice surrounding both regions. At the end of the mode switch, West Antarctic coastal temperatures rose and East Antarctic coastal temperatures fell, respectively, to their second highest and lowest of the record. Polar penetration of El Niño events increased during the mode switch. The onset of the AD 1700–1850 mode switch coincides with the extreme state of the Maunder Minimum in solar variability. Late 20th-century West Antarctic coastal temperatures are the highest in the record period, and East Antarctic coastal temperatures close to the lowest. Since AD 1700, extratropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere have experienced significant climate variability coincident with changes in both solar variability and greenhouse gases.
Recent anatomical analyses of a human maxilla found in 1927 in the Vestibule at Kent's Cavern, Devon, UK, have been interpreted as confirming its taxonomic status as Homo sapiens, while Bayesian modelling of dated fauna apparently ‘associated’ with it has been interpreted as suggesting a calendar age for the maxilla of around 44,200–41,500 years BP, rendering it the earliest fossil evidence for modern human presence in Northern Europe. In this paper, we examine fully the circumstances of the maxilla's discovery, data not previously considered. Based mostly on archival and limited published materials, as well as knowledge of the cave's stratigraphy, we provide a detailed examination of the context of the maxilla and associated finds. We urge caution over using a small selected sample of fauna from an old and poorly executed excavation in Kent's Cavern to provide a radiocarbon stratigraphy and age for a human fossil that cannot be dated directly, and we suggest that the recent dating should be rejected. We place our evaluation in the wider context of the dating of European early anatomically modern humans.
Religion was an important realm of authority for women in the Victorian period, despite their exclusion from the official hierarchies of the Anglican church and most dissenting denominations. Though widely regarded as inferior to men in intellect, women were considered equal, or even superior, in moral conduct. This assumption rested in part on their allegedly greater capacity for sympathy, and it opened leadership roles for them in areas such as philanthropy, education, and religious authorship. Depending on their wealth and social status, women might be expected to provide for the relief and improvement of the poor in the parish, or to teach in the village Sunday school. The home was also a place of religious devotion. As wives and mothers, women played a central role in the care of the household, in family prayer and the reading of Scripture, and in the moral upbringing of their children.
The Darwins and Wedgwoods were nominally Anglican. Formal adherence to Church of England doctrine was especially important for men, being an essential condition for admittance to many elite institutions, such as Oxford and Cambridge, which were important gateways to the most prestigious professions. In personal belief and practice, however, the families were Unitarian. Greater emphasis was placed on inner feeling and moral conduct than on doctrine, though belief in the afterlife remained important. The importance of prayer, Bible reading, and religious feeling are evident in letters from Darwin's sister Caroline, and his cousin and future wife, Emma Wedgwood. Tensions arising from Darwin's heterodoxy and immersion in scientific pursuits were addressed in correspondence between the couple after their engagement in November 1838. Other family letters discuss personal devotion in relation to ritual practices such as churchgoing and catechism, and provide a glimpse of Emma's moral role as educator of her children. The Darwins were active supporters of the church in Down, and on friendly terms with the local Anglican clergy, especially John Brodie Innes, who was the perpetual curate in the village from 1846 to 1868. Several years after his departure, a conflict of authority arose between the Darwins and the new vicar. Letters from Emma between 1873 and 1875 discuss this ongoing dispute, and convey her general dissatisfaction with parish affairs, and a shift of allegiance toward Protestant dissent.
Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are not only common and distressing, but are also typically poorly managed in general medical settings. Those suffering from these problems tend to incur significantly higher health costs than the general population. There are many effective treatments for different MUS; these are almost entirely based on cognitive-behavioural approaches. However, the wide range of treatment protocols tend to be ‘syndrome specific’. As such, they do not generalise well in terms of training and application, making them expensive and difficult to disseminate, suggesting the desirability of developing a transdiagnostic approach. The general basis of such a CBT grounded transdiagnostic approach is considered, and the particular need to incorporate cognitive elements of both anxiety or health anxiety (threat) and depression (loss) is highlighted. Key empirically grounded and evidence-based processes (both specific and general) previously identified as underpinning the maintenance of MUS are delineated. The way in which these can be combined in a transdiagnostic model that accounts for most MUS presentations is presented and linked to a formulation-driven transdiagnostic treatment strategy, which is described. However, the need to take more syndrome-specific issues into account in treatment is identified, suggesting that the optimum treatment may be a hybrid transdiagnostic/specific approach with formulation, shared understanding, belief change strategies, and behavioural experiments at its heart. The generalisation of such approaches to psychological problems occurring in the context of ‘long-term conditions’ is identified as a further important development that is now within reach.
To date, surveys of attitudes toward dementia have largely been conducted using unvalidated materials or have focused on healthcare professionals supporting people affected by dementia. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of public attitudes toward people affected by dementia in Bristol and South Gloucestershire.
A survey was carried out using a modified version of the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ). Data from people living outside the area, and people who were working with people affected by dementia were omitted from the analysis. Responses from the remaining 794 ADQ questionnaires were weighted to correct for under-represented age, gender, and ethnic groups.
Younger people held more positive attitudes toward dementia than older people. Individuals who identified themselves as White held more positive attitudes than non-White individuals. Individuals with personal experience of dementia held more positive attitudes than those with no experience of dementia. When considering age differences, gender played a role, with younger men having more positive scores than other groups.
This is one of the first surveys of public attitudes to dementia to use a validated questionnaire such as the ADQ. The study provides a baseline of attitudes toward dementia for the Bristol and South Gloucestershire areas, against which we will be able to compare changes over time. This is important due to the emphasis in public health campaigns on improving attitudes toward dementia.
We have undertaken an adaptive optics imaging survey of extra-solar planetary systems and stars showing interesting radial velocity trends from high precision radial velocity searches. Adaptive Optics increases the resolution and dynamic range of an image, substantially improving the detectability of faint close companions. This survey is sensitive to objects less luminous than the bottom of the main sequence at separations as close as 1″. We have detected stellar companions to the planet bearing stars HD 114762 and Tau Boo. We have also detected a companion to the non-planet bearing star 16 Cyg A.
A narrow-band translator and filter system has been constructed for the Parkes Multibeam receiver. This brief note outlines the characteristics of the system and indicates the range of new projects that will be possible in studies of the Magellanic Clouds.
We present a comparison between the latest Parkes radio surveys (Filipović et al. 1995, 1996, 1997) and Hα surveys of the Magellanic Clouds (Kennicutt & Hodge 1986). We have found 180 discrete sources in common for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 40 in the field of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Most of these sources (95%) are HII regions and supernova remnants (SNRs). A comparison of the radio and Hα flux densities shows a very good correlation and we note that many of the Magellanic Clouds SNRs are embedded in HII regions.
A grant from the Department of Employment, Education and Training and matching funding from the University of Western Sydney, Nepean, has allowed the construction of a teaching and public access observatory on the University’s Werrington North campus. The observatory consists of a lecture theatre for about 50 students, an office for administration and project/souvenir sales, and an enclosed office for research activities. The 6·5 m dome will house a fork-mounted 0·6 m (24 inch) Ritchey-Chrétien telescope working at f/10. There will also be two outside observation areas for tripod-mounted telescopes. The expected completion date for the entire project is mid-1994.
Provision of a writer for students with learning disabilities in examinations is still controversial among some academics and teachers. This is partly due to a lack of empirical research demonstrating the effects of such provisions on the performance of the student with learning disabilities compared to that of the student without learning disabilities. This study addressed the question of equity in the granting of such a provision, by reviewing the literature on the factors relevant to the written compositions of students with learning disabilities. An exploratory study of the examination scripts of students with learning disabilities and students without learning disabilities was conducted. The scripts were produced with and without the provision of a writer. The study revealed that while students with learning disabilities performed considerably better when using a writer, students without learning disabilities appeared to perform worse. A follow-up questionnaire explored some possible reasons for this pattern of performance. The paper concludes that, while there are still unresolved problems surrounding the use of a writer, such a provision for students with learning disabilities may not put students without learning disabilities at a comparative disadvantage, and so may be accepted as equitable. Further research is suggested.