To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Significant challenges face developing countries as a result of the maldistribution of access to healthcare throughout the world, specifically access to paediatric cardiac care. Sustainable paediatric cardiac programmes must be established in developing countries to provide care to all children with congenital heart disease. Education and research are essential components to sustainable paediatric cardiac programmes in developing countries to define local problems and the incidence of disease, and to generate solutions thereto related. Research can contribute to developing local expertise, improving technology, providing opportunities for local talent, generating financial resources, enhancing the dignity of people, and the facilitating resolution of health problems throughout the world. Clinical trials conducted in developing countries should meet the same ethical standards as trials based in developed countries.
Tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) bring immediate medical support to the inner perimeter of special weapons and tactics team activations. While initially envisioned as a role for an individual dually trained as a police officer and paramedic, TEMS is increasingly undertaken by physicians and paramedics who are not police officers. This report explores the ethical underpinnings of embedding a surgeon within a military or civilian tactical team with regard to identity, ethically acceptable actions, triage, responsibility set, training, certification, and potential future refinements of the role of the tactical police surgeon.
KaplanLJ, SiegelMD, EastmanAL, FlynnLM, RosenbaumSH, ConeDC, BlakeDP, MulhernJ. Ethical Considerations in Embedding a Surgeon in a Military or Civilian Tactical Team. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(6):1-6.
This chapter describes the syndromes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many elderly persons exhibit MCI, characterized by memory complaints and mild abnormalities of performance on formal tests, associated with intact general cognition and preserved activities of daily living. The clinical manifestations of AD arise from abnormalities involving brain regions and neural circuits composed of populations of neurons that are essential for memory, learning, and cognitive performance. Early information about the involvement of neurotransmitter-specific circuits damaged by the disease led to the design of early therapies for AD. The genetics of AD are complex, often influencing phenotype in an age-dependent manner. Late onset cases of AD without clear familial association reflect the influences of a variety of risk factors. The chapter emphasizes the need for safe and effective mechanism-based therapies for AD. New treatments will probably require combinatorial approaches.
Background: Understanding the prevalence, incidence and cofactors of depression among long-term elderly nursing home (LTNH) residents domiciled for eight months or more may help optimize depression treatment in this vulnerable group. We quantified first year depression in American LTNH residents and the associations between depression and resident/facility characteristics.
Methods: Data were obtained from the Minimum Data Set and Online Survey Certification and Reporting for 634,060 LTNH residents admitted from 1999 to 2005 in 4,216 facilities. Depression first diagnosed at admission and at subsequent quarterly intervals through the first year of stay was examined. Logistic regressions modeled correlates of newly identified depression in each time-period.
Results: Recorded depression at admission and during the first year increased from 1999 to 2005. By 2005, 54.4% of LTNH residents had depression diagnosed over the first year; 32.8% at admission and a further 21.6% later during the first year. Antidepressant use was reported prior to depression diagnosis for 48% of those first identified depressed after admission. Men, non-Hispanic blacks, never married, and severely-cognitively impaired LTNH residents were less often identified with depression, particularly at admission. Pain and physical comorbidity were positively associated with depression identified throughout the first year. Prior institutionalization was associated with depression at admission, but not new depression after admission. Facility characteristics had weaker associations with depression.
Conclusions: High depression rates at admission and during the first year indicate a need to monitor and treat large numbers of American LTNH residents for depression. Reduced associations between demographics and depression as stays progress suggest other factors have increased roles in depression etiology.
African trypanosomes have emerged as promising unicellular model organisms for the next generation of systems biology. They offer unique advantages, due to their relative simplicity, the availability of all standard genomics techniques and a long history of quantitative research. Reproducible cultivation methods exist for morphologically and physiologically distinct life-cycle stages. The genome has been sequenced, and microarrays, RNA-interference and high-accuracy metabolomics are available. Furthermore, the availability of extensive kinetic data on all glycolytic enzymes has led to the early development of a complete, experiment-based dynamic model of an important biochemical pathway. Here we describe the achievements of trypanosome systems biology so far and outline the necessary steps towards the ambitious aim of creating a ‘Silicon Trypanosome’, a comprehensive, experiment-based, multi-scale mathematical model of trypanosome physiology. We expect that, in the long run, the quantitative modelling enabled by the Silicon Trypanosome will play a key role in selecting the most suitable targets for developing new anti-parasite drugs.
The THz spectral region includes a number of important transitions which
allow us to trace the evolution of the interstellar medium. Because of the
opacity of the atmosphere in this spectral range, the best sites for
ground-based THz observations are on the Antarctic Plateau; of these sites,
Dome A is expected to be the best. THz survey science can be carried out
with small telescopes, easing logistical constraints. By deploying a
submillimetre-wave tipper/ telescope to Dome A, we have trialled several
technologies for such an instrument, and we are able to test whether the
site quality is sufficient for THz surveys.
Distribution, size composition and behaviour of Euphausia superba were investigated in the northwestern Weddell Sea (59–63°S, 45–52°W) in October-November 1988 using RMT trawling, SCUBA diving and visual examination of the ice undersurface using a remotely-operated vehicle (ROV). Amounts of krill washed onto the ice during ice-breaking along transects were noted. Juvenile and sub-adult krill were found, often in high numbers, in association with seasonal pack-ice, from the outer marginal ice zone to at least 200 nautical miles [3 50 km] into the closed pack-ice zone. Krill caught with the RMT or observed within or close to the ice usually had full guts. They were frequently seen feeding on ice algae, and seemed to concentrate in pressure zones, melting ice and infiltration layers, ie where ice provided both confining crevices and rich algal growth. During twilight numbers of krill increased in open water close to the ice, though ROV observations at night revealed even greater numbers remaining in ice cavities. Direct observations from deck, by divers and by ROV, confirmed that most of the krill population in the uppermost water layer was confined to ice habitats, though in three out of 20 RMT catches krill reached densities of 0.1 nr3 ie normal summer values. ‘Miniswarms’ forming in early November may indicate seasonal transition of at least part of the krill population from winter ice habitat and grazing on ice-algae, to summer pelagic life and filter-feeding on phytoplankton.
An asymptotic method for analysing slender non-axisymmetric drops, bubbles and jets in a general straining flow is developed. The method relies on the slenderness of the geometry to reduce the three-dimensional equations to a sequence of weakly coupled, quasi-two-dimensional Stokes flow problems for the cross-sectional evolution. Exact solution techniques for the flow outside a bubble in two-dimensional Stokes flow are generalized to solve for the transverse flow field, allowing large non-axisymmetric deformations to be described. A generalization to the case where the interior of the bubble contains a slightly viscous fluid is also presented.
Our method is used to compute steady non-axisymmetric solution branches for inviscid bubbles and slightly viscous drops. We also present unsteady numerical solutions showing how the eccentricity of the cross-section adjusts to a non-axisymmetric external flow. Finally, we use our theory to investigate how the pinch-off of a jet of relatively inviscid fluid is affected by a two-dimensional straining cross-flow.
This study  was performed for SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) within the framework of the assessment of the long-term safety of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel.
Subsequent to work performed by , SKB decided to carry out additional hydrogeological modelling studies related to glaciation effects at Äspö. In particular, subglacial groundwaterflow and the impact assessment on a repository required further studies. The presence of subglacial groundwater flow beneath ice sheets is due to basal melting occurring during glaciation periods.
As compared to the previous model , the domain geometry and processes involved remained identical but this time numerical calculations are performed with the NAMMU program. Modified assumptions corresponding to specific boundary conditions were implemented and additional variations of the base case were simulated.