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We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
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Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
Challenges faced by older people include losses of loved ones through death; declining health, mobility, and function of the five senses; loss of independence; diminishing cognitive ability; and the struggle with Erik Erikson’s final two stages of life, namely generativity versus stagnation and ego integrity versus despair. Those who dedicate their energies to helping the elderly meet these challenges will be well served by the toolbox of techniques within the rubric of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). This chapter will serve as a brief overview of IPT principles, a review of the extant scientific literature on its efficacy in late life, and case vignettes to illustrate how it was used for each of the four foci of IPT, namely, role transition, grief, role disputes, and interpersonal deficit.
I am pleased to be asked to write the foreword for the second edition of Examination Techniques in Orthopaedics, coedited by Mr Nick Harris and Mr Fazal Ali. The first edition of this textbook was one of the bestselling orthopaedic books in the United Kingdom for almost a decade. This second edition is likely to at least equal that success. So often in the world of orthopaedic surgery we jump to advanced imaging and forget about the importance of the examination. This is clearly a mistake and has caused many errors in clinical judgement. Therefore, careful review of orthopaedic examination as presented in this textbook is critical for all orthopaedic surgeons, young and old alike. This book provides a complete repository of all examinations, beginning with general principles and proceeding literally from head to toe, to include paediatric examination. This is truly an excellent book and likely will be the gold standard to which examination textbooks are compared. It is my pleasure to write this foreword. I think you will enjoy this textbook and it should stay on your shelf until the third edition is available. I give it my strongest endorsement and look forward to studying it myself.
The first edition of this book has become essential reading for those preparing for postgraduate examinations in orthopaedics. Medical students and junior trainees had their own books to use. This is surprising as the same process of examination is used by all groups, the only differences being that the senior trainee should look more polished and should know more special tests. It was this realization that prompted us to come together with our many years’ experience of teaching clinical examination and to rewrite every chapter in a format that was uniform in style and in a sequence that could be used in examination situations or in clinical practice by all. Quick revision will become easier as each chapter ends with a summary of the examination technique. Another unique addition is that the illustrations also follow a sequence for quick visual revision. These illustrations are supplemented by numerous new clinical photographs. It is our hope that we have made this book even more user-friendly and an essential companion through your career in clinical practice.
Examination Techniques in Orthopaedics comprehensively covers the basic examination skills and important special tests needed to evaluate the adult and paediatric musculoskeletal system. Chapters are presented in an easy-to-read, memorable format, helping readers develop their own detailed framework for patient examination as well as promoting exam success. For this new edition, all of the chapters have been rewritten in a uniform style and a chapter on general principles has been added. Each chapter is illustrated by clinical photographs and photographs demonstrating the techniques on models, and includes a summary of techniques, which readers will find useful in exam preparation. The contributing authors are experienced in teaching clinical examination both in the hospital setting and on national courses, and furthermore, many are examiners with firsthand awareness of what candidates need to know. Invaluable reading for those taking undergraduate and postgraduate examinations, practising orthopaedic surgeons, physiotherapists, general practitioners, medical students and rheumatologists.