Personality development and its consequences for the functioning of individuals over the life-span has recently received a lot of interest. A full chapter in the new edition of the Handbook of Child Psychology (Caspi, 1998) was devoted to the topic, as was a special issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Diener, 2000). In addition, attempts have been made to broaden the focus of personality research with developmental issues, for example by adapting the Big Five framework to fit the study of childhood and adolescence (Halverson, Kohnstamm, and Martin, 1994), and to connect this paradigm with the well-established tradition of research on children's temperament (Rothbart, Ahadi, and Evans, 2000). In this chapter, we will focus on a recent development in the study of personality in childhood and adolescence, namely the study of personality types. We will present data on the social relationships of these types, and the way type membership and relationships interact in determining psychosocial functioning in childhood and adolescence.
Ego-resiliency and ego-control
As recently noted in several reviews of the literature (Caspi, 1998; Eisenberg, Fabes, Guthrie, and Reiser, 2000; Rothbart and Bates, 1998), there is increasing recognition that the constructs of temperament and personality overlap, and that early temperamental differences are the substrate of personality. This overlap becomes particularly clear when the definition of temperament from the work of Rothbart is followed (see also van Lieshout, 2000).