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In Australia, the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mental health and well-being is a major human rights issue, and escalating suicide rates represent a national emergency. This chapter describes the Australian human rights context and developments within the discipline and profession of psychology to address these inequities, with the reconciliation action plan developed by the Australian Psychological Society (APS) as one commitment to change. The focus on respectful relationships, cultural safety, and promoting self-determination is part of the background leading to the APS apology to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The apology highlighted the importance of a commitment by all psychologists to reconciliation and to modifying their attitudes and work practices to ensure a culturally appropriate, responsive, and safe workforce. The Australian Indigenous Psychology Education Project (AIPEP) represents a focus on the education and employment of the psychology workforce and illustrates collaboration with key stakeholders in psychology education to provide frameworks and guidelines for embedding cultural awareness, responsiveness, and competence throughout all psychology education.
This chapter explains functions and modules. Functions perform some operation. They can operate directly on data or indirectly via other functions. All the niceties of different kinds of functions are explained. In addition, the topic treats the concept of modules, bits of code that are available to you or other programmers. The chapter shows how you can use existing modules in your own code and how you can write your own modules for others. Finally, the chapter goes into the proper way to document your functions and modules.
This chapter reviews the basic control structures of the Python language. These are used to lay out the logic of a program so as to allow it to do an infinite amount of stuff with finite means. These structures include if, for, while, etc.
This chapter outlines the book and lays out important preliminaries. First, it addresses why linguists need to know how to program. Second, it explains why Python is a good choice for a programming language. Third, it describes how this book is different from others. Finally, it outlines the text and explains how to get the most out of it.
This chapter covers how to get and use data from the internet. It covers methods for parsing webpages and for how to treat different character encodings. It also treats parallel processing to a certain extent as it has real consequences when dealing with remote data.
This appendix gives an overview of the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK), a useful and widely used module for manipulating natural language data. The topics of corpora, tagging, and tokenizing are all covered.
This chapter introduces object-oriented programming and explains how to make use of it in Python. It covers the basic syntax of defining and using objects. It also introduces the object inheritance system and closes with an extended example of object-oriented syllable structure.
This chapter introduces input and output – how we get data into and out of our programs. The input modes include the command line, file input, pipes, and typed input. (A later chapter treats graphical user interface input.) The output modes include the command line, file output, and pipes.
This chapter covers graphical user interfaces (GUIs) using the tkinter module. The chapter starts with how to lay out a window and place user interface elements (widgets) in that window. It goes on to explain event-driven programming and how to attach basic functionality to widgets.
This chapter treats the general concept of pattern matching and the specific functions available to do this. In addition, the chapter explains the syntax of regular expressions, the notation used to describe the patterns we want to match.
This chapter explains how to install Python and basic methods for interacting with the language: the interactive environment, Idle, programs executed on the command line, and Jupyter notebooks. The focus is on simple things one can do with Python in the interactive environment. The chapter concludes with several small programs that can be run at the command line.
Specifically designed for linguists, this book provides an introduction to programming using Python for those with little to no experience of coding. Python is one of the most popular and widely-used programming languages as it's also available for free and runs on any operating system. All examples in the text involve language data and can be adapted or used directly for language research. The text focuses on key language-related issues: searching, text manipulation, text encoding and internet data, providing an excellent resource for language research. More experienced users of Python will also benefit from the advanced chapters on graphical user interfaces and functional programming.
Objectives: People living with HIV (PLWH) are more likely to report sleep difficulties and cognitive deficits. While cognitive impairment associated with sleep problems have been found in healthy and medical populations, less is known about the effects of poor sleep health (SH) on cognition among PLWH. This study examined differences in cognitive performance among participants classified based upon their HIV status and reported SH. Methods: One hundred sixteen (N=116) adults recruited from the Greater Los Angeles community were administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery and completed a questionnaire about SH. Participants were classified into the following HIV/SH groups: [HIV+/good sleep health (SH+; n=34); HIV−/SH+ (n=32); HIV−/poor sleep health (SH−; n=18) and HIV+/SH− (n=32)]. Results: For both HIV+ and HIV− individuals, poor SH was associated with lower cognitive performance, with the domains of learning and memory driving the overall relationship. The HIV+/SH− group had poorer scores in domains of learning and memory compared to the SH+ groups. Additionally, the HIV−/SH− group demonstrated poorer learning compared to the HIV−/SH+ group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that sleep problems within medical populations are relevant to cognitive functioning, highlighting the clinical and scientific importance of monitoring sleep health and cognition to help identify individuals at greatest risk of poor health outcomes. Longitudinal investigations using both objective and subjective measures of sleep are needed to determine the robustness of the current findings and the enduring effects of poor SH in the context of chronic disease. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1038–1046)