To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We have developed a new type of powder diffractometer. The diffractometer has the potential of both high count rates and very high resolution when used at a synchrotron source. The laboratory based instrument can achieve an order of magnitude improvement in count rate over existing methods with proper optics. The method uses a focusing diffracted beam monochromator in combination with a multichannel detector. The incident x-rays fall on a flat plate or capillary sample and are intercepted by a bent focusing monochromator which has the focus of the bend at the sample surface. The powder diffraction lines emerging from the bent crystal monochromator are detected by a linear or 2-dimensional detector. This allows us to eliminate the background from fluorescence or other scattering and to take data over a range of 3° to 4° instead of one angle at a time thereby providing a large improvement over conventional diffractometers.
In this study, we report the characterization of a 304L stainless steel cylindrical projectile produced by additive manufacturing. The projectile was compressively deformed using a Taylor Anvil Gas Gun, leading to a huge strain gradient along the axis of the deformed cylinder. Spatially resolved neutron diffraction measurements on the HIgh Pressure Preferred Orientation time-of-flight diffractometer (HIPPO) and Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress diffractometer (SMARTS) beamlines at the Los Alamos Neutron Science CEnter (LANSCE) with Rietveld and single-peak analysis were used to quantitatively evaluate the volume fractions of the α, γ, and ε phases as well as residual strain and texture. The texture of the γ phase is consistent with uniaxial compression, while the α texture can be explained by the Kurdjumov–Sachs relationship from the γ texture after deformation. This indicates that the material first deformed in the γ phase and subsequently transformed at larger strains. The ε phase was only found in volumes close to the undeformed material with a texture connected to the γ texture by the Shoji–Nishiyama orientation relationship. This allows us to conclude that the ε phase occurs as an intermediate phase at lower strain, and is superseded by the α phase when strain increases further. We found a proportionality between the root-mean-squared microstrain of the γ phase, dominated by the dislocation density, with the α volume fraction, consistent with strain-induced martensite α formation. Knowledge of the sample volume with the ε phase from the neutron diffraction analysis allowed us to identify the ε phase by electron back scatter diffraction analysis, complementing the neutron diffraction analysis with characterization on the grain level.
Disease in a pig herd can have major economic impacts, hampering agricultural processes and creating barriers to trade. Importantly, an outbreak of disease can also pose a risk to human health. It is currently unknown what effects different rearing regimes might have on the incidences of zoonoses in pigs. Outdoor rearing of pigs has gained popularity recently due to interest in animal welfare and an increase in the marketability of organic food. But it is unknown if outdoor rearing can alter the gut microbiology of pigs, and if pigs reared outdoors are more susceptible to zoonotic infections. A method for analysing bacterial populations present in the pig gut has been developed based on amplification of the 16S ribosomal DNA. This technique, known as Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis has been used for studying bacterial populations in environments such as soil (Osborn et al., 2000) and faeces (Li et al., 2007). It uses fluorescently labelled forward and reverse primers to generate labelled amplicons, followed by a restriction endonuclease digest of the amplified DNA to give rise to labelled terminal fragments that vary between different species. These terminal fragments are then detected using electrophoretic separation and laser detection, and identified based on the fragment size. This study aims to develop a protocol for using this technique on pure cultures of control organisms.
Research supports robust associations between childhood bullying victimization and mental health problems in childhood/adolescence and emerging evidence shows that the impact can persist into adulthood. We examined the impact of bullying victimization on mental health service use from childhood to midlife.
We performed secondary analysis using the National Child Development Study, the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study. We conducted analyses on 9242 participants with complete data on childhood bullying victimization and service use at midlife. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine associations between childhood bullying victimization and mental health service use at the ages of 16, 23, 33, 42 and 50 years. We estimated incidence and persistence of mental health service use over time to the age of 50 years.
Compared with participants who were not bullied in childhood, those who were frequently bullied were more likely to use mental health services in childhood and adolescence [odds ratio (OR) 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88–3.40] and also in midlife (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.10–1.55). Disparity in service use associated with childhood bullying victimization was accounted for by both incident service use through to age 33 years by a subgroup of participants, and by persistent use up to midlife.
Childhood bullying victimization adds to the pressure on an already stretched health care system. Policy and practice efforts providing support for victims of bullying could help contain public sector costs. Given constrained budgets and the long-term mental health impact on victims of bullying, early prevention strategies could be effective at limiting both individual distress and later costs.
We positionally match sources observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. Practically all 2MASS sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~11% of them are optically resolved galaxies and the rest are dominated by stars. About 1/3 of FIRST sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~80% of these are galaxies and the rest are dominated by quasars. Based on these results, we project that by the completion of these surveys the matched samples will include about 107 stars and 106 galaxies observed by both SDSS and 2MASS, and about 250,000 galaxies and 50,000 quasars observed by both SDSS and FIRST. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical, infrared and radio properties for the extragalactic sources from the matched samples. In particular, we find that the fraction of quasars with stellar colors missed by the SDSS spectroscopic survey is probably not larger than ~10%, and that the optical colors of radio-loud quasars are ~0.05 mag. redder (with 4σ significance) than the colors of radio-quiet quasars.
We have identified close pairs and triplets of galaxies in SDSS commissioning imaging data. The data set is from one of the SDSS equatorial scans covering an area close to 100 square degrees. We have estimated the angular correlation function of these galaxy systems and show that they appear to be appreciably more strongly clustered than are single galaxies.
The treatment gap for serious mental disorders across low-income countries is estimated to be 89%. The model for Mental Health and Development (MHD) offers community-based care for people with mental disorders in 11 low- and middle-income countries.
In Kenya, using a pre-post design, 117 consecutively enrolled participants with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders were followed-up at 10 and 20 months. Comparison outcomes were drawn from the literature. Costs were analysed from societal and health system perspectives.
From the societal perspective, MHD cost Int$ 594 per person in the first year and Int$ 876 over 2 years. The cost per healthy day gained was Int$ 7.96 in the first year and Int$ 1.03 over 2 years – less than the agricultural minimum wage. The cost per disability-adjusted life year averted over 2 years was Int$ 13.1 and Int$ 727 from the societal and health system perspectives, respectively, on par with antiretrovirals for HIV.
MHD achieved increasing returns over time. The model appears cost-effective and equitable, especially over 2 years. Its affordability relies on multi-sectoral participation nationally and internationally.
An understanding of the ecological factors influencing nest success and the effectiveness of management activities focused on improving nest success can be critical to successful conservation strategies for rare or declining species. Over seven breeding seasons (2006–2012) we examined the influence of nest spacing and habitat characteristics on hatching success for the nationally threatened Pacific coast population of the Snowy Plover Charadrius nivosus in coastal Washington, USA in two study areas. Specifically, we assessed the influence of clutch age, nesting season date, distance to conspecific nests, perpendicular distance to the high-tide (wrack) line, vegetation cover and other habitat characteristics at three spatial scales (1m2, 5m2, and 25 m2) centred on the nest. We also assessed the effectiveness of wire mesh cages placed around nests to exclude mammalian and avian nest-predators. We discovered and monitored 307 nests, placed predator exclosures around 142 of these nests and measured habitat variables at 251. Our selected base model included site and quadratic function of season-date. For the analysis examining habitat effects on nest success, only models with distance to nearest active nest ranked higher than the baseline model even when removing the nests that were very distant from conspecific nests (outliers). For these unexclosed nests, predation was the primary source of nest failure and crows and ravens were apparently the primary nest predators. Predator exclosures had a clear positive influence on nest survival. Even though we observed a positive exclosure effect, we recommend that they be used cautiously because we and others have observed adult mortality associated with exclosures. Regardless of the spatial scale, Snowy Plovers are primarily using nest sites with little vegetation, shell or woody material cover suggesting the need for large expanses of very sparsely or unvegetated habitats that allow birds to nest semi-colonially (with near neighbours).
In the present study, the susceptibility of different developmental stages (eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults) of Tetranychus urticae Koch to the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated in the laboratory. At each developmental stage, four concentrations (3 × 105, 1 × 106, 3 × 106 and 1 × 107 conidia/ml) of both fungi were sprayed. Egg viability and motile-stage mortality varied among the fungal isolates and conidial concentrations. The highest conidial concentration (1 × 107 conidia/ml) significantly reduced the viability of eggs and increased the mortality of motile stages. However, deutonymphs and adults were more susceptible to fungal infection than larvae and protonymphs. The lethal concentration values to 50% (LC50) and 90% mortality (LC90) varied with the fungal isolates and developmental stages. The results show the prospects of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae for the control of T. urticae.
Depression in mothers during pregnancy and in the postnatal period has been recognized to have wide-ranging adverse impacts on offspring. Our study examines some of the outcomes and long-term economic implications experienced by offspring who have been exposed to perinatal depression.
We analysed the effects of perinatal depression on child development outcomes of children at ages 11 and 16 years from the community-based South London Child Development Study. Economic consequences were attached to those outcomes through simple decision-analytic techniques, building on evidence from studies of epidemiology, health-related quality of life, public sector costs and employment. The economic analysis takes a life-course perspective from the viewpoints of the public sector, individual and society.
Additional risks that children exposed to perinatal depression develop emotional, behavioural or cognitive problems ranged from 5% to 21%. In addition, there was a high risk (24%) that children would have special educational needs. We present results in the form of cost consequences attached to adverse child outcomes. For each child exposed to perinatal depression, public sector costs exceeded £3030, costs due to reduced earnings were £1400 and health-related quality of life loss was valued at £3760.
Action to prevent or treat mothers' depression during pregnancy and after birth is likely to reduce public sector costs, increase earnings and improve quality of life for children who were exposed to the condition.
The current report describes the installation and the preliminary commissioning of the Material Science Powder Diffraction (MSPD) beamline at the Spanish synchrotron ALBA-CELLS. The beamline is fully dedicated to powder diffraction techniques and consists of two experimental stations positioned in series: a High Pressure/Microdiffraction station and a High Resolution/High Throughput powder diffraction station.
The impact of initial treatment outcome on long-term healthcare costs in depression remains to be determined. We aimed to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with initial treatment outcomes and to test whether and how these outcomes influence total healthcare costs over the subsequent 3 years.
In this secondary analysis of a large healthcare database, a national cohort of adult patients (n = 126 471) who received antidepressant treatment for depression was identified and factors associated with initial outcomes were examined. Potential predictors of total healthcare costs in the subsequent years were assessed using generalized linear modeling, with a particular focus on initial outcome status after antidepressant treatment and co-morbidities.
Depression type and co-morbid painful physical symptoms (PPS) or mental illnesses were found to be associated with initial outcome status. Having sustained treatment-free status after initial treatment was shown to be associated with a 22–33% reduction in total healthcare costs in the second and third years (compared to those with late recontacts). Although the presence of co-morbid PPS was associated with higher healthcare costs, having certain co-morbid anxiety disorders was associated with lower costs over the 3 years.
Initial outcome status after antidepressant treatment has a sustained impact on individuals' total healthcare costs over the following 3 years. Future efforts to improve initial treatment outcome of depression are warranted.
For people with schizophrenia, non-adherence to antipsychotic medications may result in high use of health and other services. The objective of our research was to examine the economic consequences of non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotic medication.
Data were taken from QUATRO, a randomized controlled trial that drew a sample of adults with schizophrenia receiving psychiatric services in four European cities: Amsterdam, Leipzig, London and Verona. Trial inclusion criteria were a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, requiring on-going antipsychotic medication for at least 1-year following baseline assessment, and exhibiting evidence of clinical instability in the year prior to baseline. The patient-completed Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ) was used to calculate the 5-point Morisky index of adherence. Generalized linear models (GLM) were developed to determine the effect of adherence on (i) health and social care and (ii) societal costs before and after treatment, taking into account other potential cost-influencing factors.
The effect of non-adherence on costs was mixed. For different groups of services, and according to treatment group assignment, non-adherence was both negatively and positively associated with costs.
The impact of non-adherence on costs varies across the types of services used by individuals with schizophrenia.
Embedded wafer-level ball grid array (eWLB) is investigated as a low-cost plastic package for automotive radar applications in the 76–81 GHz range. Low transmission losses from chip to package and board are achieved by appropriate circuit and package design. Special measures are taken to effectively remove the heat from the package and to optimize the package process to achieve automotive quality targets. A 77 GHz radar chip set in eWLB package is developed, which can be applied on the system board using standard solder reflow assembly. These radar MMICs provide excellent radio frequency (RF) performance for the next generation automotive radar sensors. The potential for even higher system integration is shown by a radar transceiver with antennas integrated in the eWLB package. These results demonstrate that eWLB technology is an attractive candidate to realize low-cost radar systems and to enable radar safety affordable for everyone in the near future.
The effects of low energy ions from a biased electron cyclotron resonance plasma during growth of Al2O3 and La2O3 are used to modify the density and crystalline quality of these oxide films. The type of phase formed for Al2O3 is varied with the ion-assisted growth from amorphous to crystalline γA12O3. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of different Er-doped Al- and La-oxide phases are examined, and through comparison of the PL spectra, the local environment of Er in these oxide materials is discussed.
Vacuum-arc deposition is used to deposit multilayer carbon films by modulating the sample bias during deposition. The effect of varying the sublayer thickness in multilayer films consisting of alternating layers of “hard” (68.4 GPa, -100 V bias) and “soft” (27.5 GPa, -2000 V bias) was investigated. Films consisting of equal thickness layers of hard and soft material and an individual layer thickness varying from 10 to 35 nm were deposited. Mechanical property measurements were obtained by finite element modeling of nanoindentation load-displacement curves. The film hardness values were about 20% below the average of the component layers and relatively independent of the layer thickness. TEM investigation revealed deterioration of the multilayer structure when the sublayer thickness was below 15 nm due to implantation damage of the hard layers caused by the energetic C+ ions of the soft layers (-2000 V bias) deposited over them. Pin-on-disk wear tests show that the wear rate drops when sublayer thickness is decreased below 20 nm and remains constant with further decreases in the layer thickness.
We present a methodology based on finite-element modeling of nanoindentation data to extract reliable and accurate mechanical properties from thin, hard films and surface-modified layers on softer substrates. The method deduces the yield stress, Young's modulus, and hardness from indentations as deep as 50% of the layer thickness.