To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Chest tube thoracostomy is frequently performed in the emergency department (ED) for patients with traumatic thoracic injuries. However, this procedure is associated with a high complication rate. Aim Statement: The aim of this study was to describe and assess predictors of complications following chest tube thoracostomy. Measures & Design: A retrospective chart review was conducted in a level 1 trauma center. Patients aged ≥16 who required a chest tube for a traumatic injury between 2016 and 2019 were identified. Variables including demographic data, Charlson Comorbidity Index, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), chest tube insertion and technique (i.e. position, dislodgement, obstruction, organ perforation), complications and interventions were collected using a standardized data collection form. A second reviewer assessed all ambiguous files. Descriptive statistics and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Evaluation/Results: 179 patients were included in the study, of which 141 were male (79%). Mean age was 54 18 and median ISS was 17 (Q1-Q3: 9-27). 207 chest tube thoracostomies were performed for pneumothorax (81%) or a hemothorax (38%) mainly after a blunt injury (92%). 183 standard chest tube (88%) and 24 pigtail catheters (12%) were installed. Overall, emergency medicine physicians/residents performed 70% of these procedures and 54% were performed by residents. Sixty-one patients (34%) suffered a total of 73 complications: 45 were infectious (62%) and 28 were technique-related (38%). Pneumonia was the most frequent complication (19%) followed by reintroduced or replaced chest tube (12%). After adjusting for the ISS, there was no statistically significant association between the type of tube (OR 0.36 95% CI: 0.08-1.68), the medical specialty (OR 1.19 95% CI: 0.55-2.58) or the level of training (OR 1.29 95% CI: 0.63-2.64) of the clinician and the incidence of at least one complication. Discussion/Impact: Our results show that one out of three patients experienced at least one complication following a chest tube thoracostomy in the ED, which confirmed existing literature (5%- 38%). After adjustment, the type of tube used, the specialty and level of training of the health professional who performed the procedure was not associated with the incidence of at least one complication.
Introduction: Patients hospitalized following a trauma will be frequently treated with opioids during their stay and after discharge. We examined the relationship between acute phase (< 3 months) opioid use after discharge and the risk of opioid poisoning (OP) or opioid use disorder (OUD) in older trauma patients Methods: In a retrospective multicenter cohort study conducted on registry data, we included all patients aged 65 years and older admitted (hospital stay >2 days) for injury in 57 trauma centers in the province of Quebec (Canada) between 2004 and 2014. We searched for OP and OUD from ICD-9 and ICD-10 code diagnosis that resulted in a hospitalization or a medical consultation after their initial injury. Patients that filled an opioid prescription within a 3-month period after sustaining the trauma were compared to those who did not fill an opioid prescription during that period using Cox proportional hazards regressions. Results: A total of 70,314 participants were retained for analysis; median age was 82 years (IQR: 75-87), 68% were women, and 34% of the patients filled an opioid prescription within 3-months of the initial trauma. During a median follow-up of 2.6 years (IQR: 1-5), 192 participants (0.30%; 95%CI: 0.25%-0.35%) were hospitalized for OP and 73 (0.10%; 95%CI: 0.07%-0.13%) were diagnosed with OUD. Having filled an opioid prescription within 3-months of injury was associated with an increased hazard ratio of OP (2.6; 95%CI: 1.9-3.5) and OUD (4.0; 95%CI: 2.3-7.0). However, history of OP (2.7; 95%CI: 1.2-6.1), of substance use disorder (4.3; 95%CI: 2.4-7.9), or of opioid prescription filled (2.7; 95%CI: 2.1-3.5) before trauma were also related to OP or OUD. Conclusion: Opioid poisoning and opioid use disorder are rare events after hospitalization for trauma in older patients. However, opioids should be used cautiously in patients with history of substance use disorder, opioid poisoning or opioid use during the past year.
Introduction: Older (age >=65 years) trauma patients suffer increased morbidity and mortality. This is due to under-triage of older trauma victims, resulting in lack of transfer to a trauma centre or failure to activate the trauma team. There are currently no Canadian guidelines for the management of older trauma patients. The objective of this study was to identify modifiers to the prehospital and emergency department (ED) phases of major trauma care for older adults based on expert consensus. Methods: We conducted a modified Delphi study to assess senior-friendly major trauma care modifiers based on national expert consensus. The panel consisted of 24 trauma care providers across Canada, including medical directors, paramedics, emergency physicians, emergency nurses, trauma surgeons and trauma administrators. Following a literature review, we developed an online Delphi survey consisting of 16 trauma care modifiers. Three online survey rounds were distributed and panelists were asked to score items on a 9-point Likert scale. The following predetermined thresholds were used: appropriate (median score 7–9, without disagreement); inappropriate (median score 1–3; without disagreement), and uncertain (any median score with disagreement). The disagreement index (DI) is a method for measuring consensus within groups. Agreement was defined a priori as a DI score <1. Results: There was a 100% response rate for all survey rounds. Three new trauma care modifiers were suggested by panelists. Of 19 trauma care modifiers, the expert panel achieved consensus agreement for 17 items. The prehospital modifier with the strongest agreement to transfer to a trauma centre was a respiratory rate <10 or >20 breaths/minute or needing ventilatory support (DI = 0.24). The ED modifier with the strongest level of agreement was obtaining a 12-lead electrocardiogram following the primary and secondary survey for all older adults (DI = 0.01). Two trauma care modifiers failed to reach consensus agreement: transporting older patients with ground level falls to a trauma centre and activating the trauma team based solely on an age >=65 years. Conclusion: Using a modified Delphi process, an expert panel agreed upon 17 trauma care modifiers for older adults in the prehospital and ED phases of care. These modifiers may improve the delivery of senior-friendly trauma care and should be considered when developing local and national trauma guidelines.
Introduction: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is a common problem: each year in Canada, its incidence is estimated at 500-600 cases per 100 000. Between 10 and 56% of mTBI patients develop persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) that can last for more than 90 days. It is therefore important for clinicians to identify patients who are at risk of developing PPCS. We hypothesized that blood biomarkers drawn upon patient arrival to the Emergency Department (ED) could help predict PPCS. The main objective of this project was to measure the association between four biomarkers and the incidence of PPCS 90 days post mTBI. Methods: Patients were recruited in seven Canadian ED. Non-hospitalized patients, aged ≥14 years old with a documented mTBI that occurred ≤24 hrs of ED consultation, with a GCS ≥13 at arrival were included. Sociodemographic and clinical data as well as blood samples were collected in the ED. A standardized telephone questionnaire was administered at 90 days post ED visit. The following biomarkers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): S100B protein, Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE), cleaved-Tau (c-Tau) and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The primary outcome measure was the presence of persistent symptoms at 90 days after mTBI, as assessed using the Rivermead Post-Concussion symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). A ROC curve was constructed for each biomarker. Results: 1276 patients were included in the study. The median age for this cohort was 39 (IQR 23-57) years old, 61% were male and 15% suffered PPCS. The median values (IQR) for patients with PPCS compared to those without were: 43 pg/mL (26-67) versus 42 pg/mL (24-70) for S100B protein, 50 pg/mL (50-223) versus 50 pg/mL (50-199) for NSE, 2929 pg/mL (1733-4744) versus 3180 pg/mL (1835-4761) for c-Tau and 1644 pg/mL (650-3215) versus 1894 pg/mL (700-3498) for GFAP. For each of these biomarkers, Areas Under the Curve (AUC) were 0.495, 0.495, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. Conclusion: Among mTBI patients, S100B protein, NSE, c-Tau or GFAP during the first 24 hours after trauma do not seem to be able to predict PPCS. Future research testing of other biomarkers is needed in order to determine their usefulness in predicting PPCS when combined with relevant clinical data.
Introduction: Trauma care is highly complex and prone to medical errors. Accordingly, several studies have identified adverse events and conditions leading to potentially preventable or preventable deaths. Depending on the availability of specialized trauma care and the trauma system organization, between 10 and 30% of trauma-related deaths worldwide could be preventable if optimal care was promptly delivered. This narrative review aims to identify the main determinants and areas for improvements associated with potentially preventable trauma mortality. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1990 to a maximum of 6 months before submission for publication. Experimental or observational studies that have assessed determinants and areas for improvements that are associated with trauma death preventability were considered for inclusion. Two researchers independently selected eligible studies and extracted the relevant data. The main areas for improvements were classified using the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations patient event taxonomy. No statistical analyses were performed given the data heterogeneity. Results: From the 3647 individual titles obtained by the search strategy, a total of 37 studies were included. Each study included between 72 and 35311 trauma patients who had sustained mostly blunt trauma, frequently following a fall or a motor vehicle accident. Preventability assessment was performed for 17 to 2081 patients using either a single expert assessment (n = 2, 5,4%) or an expert panel review (n = 35, 94.6%). The definition of preventability and the taxonomy used varied greatly between the studies. The rate of potentially preventable or preventable death ranged from 2.4% to 76.5%. The most frequently reported areas for improvement were treatment delay, diagnosis accuracy to avoid missed or incorrect diagnosis and adverse events associated with the initial procedures performed. The risk of bias of the included studies was high for 32 studies because of the retrospective design and the panel review preventability assessment. Conclusion: Deaths occurring after a trauma remain often preventable. Included studies have used unstandardized definitions of a preventable death and various methodologies to perform the preventability assessment. The proportion of preventable or potentially preventable death reported in each study ranged from 2.4% to 76.5%. Delayed treatment, missed or incorrect initial diagnosis and adverse events following a procedure were commonly associated with preventable trauma deaths and could be targeted to develop quality improvement and monitoring projects.
Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of clinically significant traumatic intracranial haemorrhage (T-ICH) following minor head trauma in older adults. Secondary objective was to investigate the impact of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies on T-ICH incidence. Methods: This retrospective cohort study extracted data from electronic patient records. The cohort consisted of patients presenting after a fall and/or head injury and presented to one of five ED between 1st March 2010 and 31st July 2017. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 65 years old and a minor head trauma defined as an impact to the head without fulfilling criteria for traumatic brain injury. Results: From the 1,000 electronic medical records evaluated, 311 cases were included. The mean age was 80.1 (SD 7.9) years. One hundred and eighty-nine (189) patients (60.8%) were on an anticoagulant (n = 69), antiplatelet (n = 130) or both (n = 16). Twenty patients (6.4%) developed a clinically significant T-ICH. Anticoagulation and/or antiplatelets therapies were not associated with an increased risk of clinically significant T-ICH in this cohort (Odds ratio (OR) 2.7, 95% CI 0.9-8.3). Conclusion: In this cohort of older adults presenting to the ED following minor head trauma, the incidence of clinically significant T-ICH was 6.4%.
Introduction: Clinical assessment of patients with mTBI is challenging and overuse of head CT in the emergency department (ED) is a major problem. During the last decades, studies have attempted to reduce unnecessary head CTs following a mTBI by identifying new tools aiming to predict intracranial bleeding. S100B serum protein level might be helpful reducing those imaging since a higher level of S-100B protein has been associated with intracranial hemorrhage following a mTBI in previous literature. The main objective of this study was to assess whether the S100B serum protein level is associated with clinically important brain injury and could be used to reduce the number of head CT following a mTBI. Methods: This prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in five Canadian ED. MTBI patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15 in the ED and a blood sample drawn within 24-hours after the injury were included. S-100B protein was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All types of intracranial bleedings were reviewed by a radiologist who was blinded to the biomarker results. The main outcome was the presence of clinically important brain injury. Results: A total of 476 patients were included. Mean age was 41 ± 18 years old and 150 (31.5%) were female. Twenty-four (5.0%) patients had a clinically significant intracranial hemorrhage while 37 (7.8%) had any type of intracranial bleeding. S100B median value (Q1-Q3) of was: 0.043 ug/L (0.008-0.080) for patients with clinically important brain injury versus 0.039 μg/L (0.023-0.059) for patients without clinically important brain injury. Sensitivity and specificity of the S100B protein level, if used alone to detect clinically important brain injury, were 16.7% (95% CI 4.7-37.4) and 88.5% (95% CI 85.2-91.3), respectively. Conclusion: S100B serum protein level was not associated with clinically significant intracranial hemorrhage in mTBI patients. This protein did not appear to be useful to reduce the number of CT prescribed in the ED and would have missed many clinically important brain injuries. Future research should focus on different ways to assess mTBI patient and ultimately reduce unnecessary head CT.
Introduction: Minor thoracic trauma (MTI) accounts for approximately 15% of all injuries treated in the emergency department (ED). Many of which are minor and will be handle on an outpatient basis. MTI and rib fractures especially cause non-negligible pain. The pain experienced by patients can lead to reduce pulmonary function, decrease mucous clearance and decrease cough capacity leading in infectious problems and atelectasis. To our knowledge, there is no study of atelectasis development caused by reduced cough capacity in the setting of MTI. Objective: Evaluate if a variation in cough capacity leads to atelectasis development. Evaluate if there was a difference in cough capacity perception between the nurse, the physician and the patient himself. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study (2006-2012) in 4 ED recruited patients with a chief complaint of MTI, ≥ 16 years old, discharged home from the ED. Exclusion criteria: 1) a confirmed hemothorax, pneumothorax, fail chest, lung contusion or any other important thoracic or abdominal internal injury at the initial visit or unable to attend follow-up visits. Patients were assessed at 7- and 14- days. For each patient, age, sex, mechanism of injury, dyspnea, COPD/asthma and smoking status were collected. Chest x-ray was done at each visit; pulmonary complications were assessed by a blind radiologist. Cough capacity was assessed on a scale of 0 to 10 by a nurse, physician and patient himself at 0, 7- and 14- days. Pain was scored on a scale of 0 to 10. Chi -squared and odds ratio (IC: 95%. p ≤ 0.05) were assessed to determine if the cough capacity variation leads to atelectasis development. A Pearson correlation test was assessed the correlation in cough capacity among participants. Results: 1474 patients were recruited. Initial visit: 9% had atelectasis, 7 days: 7% and 4.6% at 14 days. 1105 patients were retained for analysis after exclusion of missing data. The median initial pain score was 7-8 for all patient categories. At 7 days, the odds ratio of atelectasis development were (score (0-3) 1.18 (0.42-3.34); score (4-7) 1.20 (0.48-3.03); p<=0.05). The Pearson correlation of cough capacity assessment, in patients without atelectasis were (0.53 nurse vs. patient; 0.37 physician vs. patient; 0.51 nurse vs. physician p<=0.05). As for the cough capacity perception correlation in patients with atelectasis were (0.62 nurse vs. patient; 0.40 physician vs. patient; 0.51 nurse vs. physician; p<=0.05). Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference in atelectasis development depending on cough capacity and there is poor correlation regarding the perception of cough capacity except for the nurse. It would be interesting to develop a patient reported outcome measure questionnaire which targets minor thoracic trauma as it is a common emergency department complaint and it could help us improve medical management and patient quality of life
Introduction: The Brain Injury Guidelines (BIG) stratifies complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients into 3 groups to guide hospitalization, neurosurgical consultation and repeat head-CT. BIG-1 patients could be managed safely without neurosurgical consultation or transfer. Systematic transfer to neurotrauma centers provide few benefits to this subgroup leading to overtriage. Similarly, unnecessary clinical and radiological follow-ups utilize significant health-care resources. Objective: to validate the safety and efficacy of the BIG for complicated mTBIs. Methods: We performed a multicenter historical cohort study in 3 level-1 trauma centers in Quebec. Patients ≥16 years old assessed in the Emergency Department (ED) with complicated mTBI between 2014 and 2017 were included. Patients with penetrating trauma, cerebral aneurysm or tumor were excluded. Clinical, demographic and radiological data, BIG variables, TBI-related death and neurosurgical intervention were collected using a standardized form. A second reviewer assessed all ambiguous files. Descriptive statistics, over- and under-triage were calculated. Results: A total of 342 patients’ records were assessed. Mean age was 63 ± 20,7 and 236 (69 %) were male. Thirty-five patients were classified under BIG-1 (10.2%), 110 under BIG-2 (32.2%) and 197 under BIG-3 (57.6%). Twenty-six patients (7%) required neurosurgical intervention, all were BIG-3. 90% of TBI-related deaths occurred in BIG-3 and none were classified BIG-1. Among the 192 transfers (51%), 14 were classified under BIG-1 (7.3%) and should not have been transferred according to the guidelines and 50 under BIG-2 (26%). In addition, 40% of BIG-1 received a repeat head computed tomography, although not indicated. Similarly, 7 % of all patients had a neurosurgical consult even if not required. Projected implementation of BIG would lead to 47% of overtriage and 0.3% of undertriage. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the Brain Injury Guidelines could safely identify patients with negative outcomes and could lead to a safe and effective management of complicated mTBI. Applying these guidelines to our cohort could have resulted in significantly fewer repeat head CTs, neurosurgical consults and transfers to level 1 neurotrauma centers.
Introduction: Each year, 3/1000 Canadians sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Many of those mTBI are accompanied by various co-injuries such as dislocations, sprains, fractures or internal injuries. A number of those patients, with or without co-injuries will suffer from persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) more than 90 days post injury. However, little is known about the impact of co-injuries on mTBI outcome. This study aims to describe the impact of co-injuries on PPCS and on patient return to normal activities. Methods: This multicenter prospective cohort study took place in seven large Canadian Emergency Departments (ED). Inclusion criteria: patients aged ≥ 14 who had a documented mTBI that occurred within 24 hours of ED visit, with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15. Patients who were admitted following their ED visit or unable to consent were excluded. Clinical and sociodemographic information was collected during the initial ED visit. A research nurse then conducted three follow-up phone interviews at 7, 30 and 90 days post-injury, in which they assessed symptom evolution using the validated Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Adjusted risk ratios (RR) were calculated to estimate the influence of co-injuries. Results: A total of 1674 patients were included, of which 1023 (61.1%) had at least one co-injury. At 90 days, patients with co-injuries seemed to be at higher risk of having 3 symptoms ≥2 points according to the RPQ (RR: 1.28 95% CI 1.02-1.61) and of experiencing the following symptoms: dizziness (RR: 1.50 95% CI 1.03-2.20), fatigue (RR: 1.35 95% CI 1.05-1.74), headaches (RR: 1.53 95% CI 1.10-2.13), taking longer to think (RR: 1.50 95% CI 1.07-2.11) and feeling frustrated (RR: 1.45 95% CI 1.01-2.07). We also observed that patients with co-injuries were at higher risk of non-return to their normal activities (RR: 2.31 95% CI 1.37-3.90). Conclusion: Patients with co-injuries could be at higher risk of suffering from specific symptoms at 90 days post-injury and to be unable to return to normal activities 90 days post-injury. A better understanding of the impact of co-injuries on mTBI could improve patient management. However, further research is needed to determine if the differences shown in this study are due to the impact of co-injuries on mTBI recovery or to the co-injuries themselves.
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a serious public health issue and as much as one third of mTBI patients could be affected by persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) three months after their injury. Even though a significant proportion of all mTBIs are sports-related (SR), little is known on the recovery process of SR mTBI patients and the potential differences between SR mTBI and patients who suffered non-sports-related mTBI. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of PPCS among patients who sustained a SR mTBI compared to those who sustained non sport-related mTBI. Methods: This Canadian multicenter prospective cohort study included patients aged ≥ 14 who had a documented mTBI that occurred within 24 hours of Emergency Department (ED) visit, with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15. Patients who were hospitalized following their ED visit or unable to consent were excluded. Clinical and sociodemographic information was collected during the initial ED visit. Three follow-up phone interviews were conducted by a research nurse at 7, 30 and 90 days post-injury to assess symptom evolution using the validated Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Adjusted risk ratios (RR) were calculated to demonstrate the impact of the mechanism of injury (sports vs non-sports) on the presence and severity of PPCS. Results: A total of 1676 mTBI patients were included, 358 (21.4%) of which sustained a SR mTBI. At 90 days post-injury, patients who suffered a SR mTBI seemed to be significantly less affected by fatigue (RR: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.50-0.97)) and irritability (RR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94)). However, no difference was observed between the two groups regarding each other symptom evaluated in the RPQ. Moreover, the proportion of patients with three symptoms or more, a score ≥21 on the RPQ and those who did return to their normal activities were also comparable. Conclusion: Although persistent post-concussion symptoms are slightly different depending on the mechanism of trauma, our results show that patients who sustained SR-mTBI could be at lower risk of experiencing some types of symptoms 90 days post-injury, in particular, fatigue and irritability.
Introduction: Acute pain is frequent among patients visiting the emergency department (ED). In addition to the acute discomfort, pain has been linked to adverse events and poorest outcomes in older adults. However, pain is frequently overlooked by emergency clinicians, particularly in older adults. Advanced age has been linked to poor recognition and under treatment of pain. The contribution of ED investigations and procedures to the patient's pain is unknown. This study aims to determine the intensity of the pain induced by the investigations and procedures commonly performed in the ED. Methods: In two EDs, a convenience sample of older adults (≥ 65 years old) with at least two investigations or procedures performed during their ED visit were eligible. Patients were excluded if they were hemodynamically unstable, in palliative care or not oriented in time and space. The pain intensity was assessed at bedside by a research assistant for the following investigations or procedures: blood sampling, intravenous catheter, electrocardiogram, X-rays, computed tomography, beside ultrasound, urinary catheter, cervical collar and prehospital immobilization mattress. The predetermined sample size was 50 pain assessment per investigation or procedure. The pain intensity was assessed using a numerous rating scale (NRS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (most severe pain), for each investigation or procedure received. NRS results are presented using median (med) and interquartile range (IQR) and classified as followed: no pain (0), mild pain (1-3), moderate pain (4-6) and severe pain (7-10). Results: Between June 2018 and December 2019, 494 patients were screened of which 318 were finally included (exclusion: not oriented (n = 113), refusal (n = 27), palliative care (n = 34), other reasons (n = 12)). The mean age of included patients was 77.8 years old (standard deviation = 8.0), 54.4% were female and 78.6% were living in the community. Only 15 patients (4.7%) were known to have cognitive impairment or dementia and 23 patients (7.2%) were on regular or PRN opioid medication at home. The expected sample size of at least 50 pain score assessment per investigation or procedure was obtained for all interventions with the exception of urinary catheter (n = 23) and immobilization mattress (n = 35). For the other investigations or procedures, the number of pain assessment ranged between 51 (cervical collar) and 231 (blood sampling). All investigations and procedures were associated with a median pain score of 0 with the exception of blood sampling (n = 231, med NRS 1 (IQR 0;3)), intravenous catheter (n = 241, med NRS 1 (IQR 0;4)), urinary catheter (n = 23, med NRS 4 (IQR 1;6)), cervical collar (n = 51, med NRS 5 (IQR 0;8)) immobilisation mattress (n = 35, med NRS 3 (IQR 0;8)). Moderate or severe pain (NRS 4-10) was infrequently reported following most investigations or procedures with the exception of urinary catheter (60.8%), cervical collar (54.9%) and immobilization mattress (48.5%). Cervical collar induced severe pain in 41.8% of the patients. Conclusion: Most investigations and procedures commonly administered in the ED to older adults are associated with no pain or low intensity of pain. Severe pain is also infrequently induced by these interventions for most older adults. However, urinary catheter, cervical collar and immobilization mattress are associated with a higher intensity of pain and more than 40% of patients suffering from severe pain following the application of cervical collar. Considering the potential adverse effects of pain and the lack of evidence-based data to support the use of some interventions such as the cervical collar, the decision to use these interventions should be carefully weighted and could include a shared-decision making process. The generalizability of those findings to older adults with cognitive impairment is unknown. Future studies should focus on circumstances in which these procedures are beneficial to the patient to limit the unnecessary pain associated with their use.
Introduction: Geriatric Emergency Department (ED) guidelines recommend systematic screening of older patients for geriatric syndromes. However, compliance issues to this recommendation have already been observed. Self-assessment tools could be an interesting solution as self-assessed general, mental and physical health was shown to be predictive of functional decline and mortality. The Older Americans Resources and Services scale (OARS), is a simple geriatric functional assessment scale that is widely used by professionals to quantify patients’ ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). However, its use as a self-assessment tool has never been tested. Objective: to evaluate the feasibility of the self-assessed OARS compared to its standard administration by a research assistant (RA) in older ED patients. Methods: A planned sub-analysis of a single center randomized crossover pilot study in 2018 was realized. Patients aged ≥65 who consulted to the ED for any medical reason were included. Patients were excluded if they: 1) required resuscitation (CTAS 1); 2) were unable to consent/to speak French; 3) had a physical condition preventing the use of an electronic tablet. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either 1) tablet-based functional status self-assessment or 2) the RAs questionnaire administration at first, after which they crossed-over to the other assessment method. Paired t-tests were used to assess the score differences. Results: 60 patients were included. Mean age was 74.4 ± 7.6 and 34 (56.7%) participants were women. Mean OARS score according to RA was 25.1 ± 3.3 and mean self-assessed OARS score was 26.4 ± 2.5 (p < 0.0001). There was also differences when looking at the AVQ and AIVQ separately. Mean AVQ scores were 12.5 ± 1.8 and 13.5 ± 0.9 (p < 0.0001) and mean AIVQ scores were 12.6 ± 1.8 and 12.9 ± 1.8 (p = 0.04) for RA assessment and self-assessment, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show a statistically significant difference between RA assessment and patient self-assessment of functional status, and this difference seems to be more pronounced regarding AVQ than AIVQ. The study confirms that self-assessment of functional status by older ED patients is feasible, but further testing is required in order to confirm the validity and psychometric values of this self-administered version of the OARS.
Introduction: The elderly (65 yo and more) increase in Canada is well documented along with a disproportionate use of Emergency Departments after a minor injury. These patients requires specific care given a 16% risk of functional decline following a visit to ED. To prevent functional decline, a multidimensional assessment of the elderly is recommended in the emergency department. Objective: To determine if ED grip strength can predict functional decline at 3 or 6 months post-injury. Methods: A multicentre prospective study in 5 ED across Canada was realized between 2013 and 16. Patients 65 years old and over, autonomous in daily living activities and consulting the emergency department for minor trauma were recruited 7 days a week. Clinical-demographic data, functional status, fear of falling, number of falls in the last month, grip strength measurement were collected in the ED. Functional decline (loss of at least points to functional status) was calculated at 3 and 6 months. Descriptive statistics and linear regression model with repeated measurements were used to determine if the grip strength was predictive of functional decline at 3 or 6 months. Results: 387 patient were recruited. Mean age was 74 ± 7 years old, 52% were male. XXX experienced a fall in the last month. The initial maximum grip strength was (24 ± 10 intervention vs. 28 ± 13 control; p ≤ 0.05). grip strength is associated with pre-injury functional status (p < 0.0001) and fear of falling (p = 0.0001) but does not predict 3 or 6 month functional decline. Conclusion: Given the strong association with fear of falling and functional status at initial ED evaluation, we recommend that grip strength measurement could be included in a multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department assessment as needed.
Introduction: Endotracheal intubation (EI) is frequently performed in the emergency department (ED). Although this procedure is generally life-saving, EI is also known to cause adverse effects, such as hemodynamic alterations. A systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg is the most commonly accepted definition of hypotension; however systolic blood pressure naturally increases with age. The National Trauma Triage Protocol now states that this threshold could be raised to 110 mmHg in older patients. Objective: to determine the impact of increasing the post-intubation hypotension (PIH) threshold to 110 mmHg on hospital length of stay and mortality in older patients. Methods: Design: A historical cohort of patients admitted in a level-1 trauma center ED between 06/2011 and 05/2016 was constituted. Population: Patients were included if pre-EI vital signs were available, their intubation was performed in the resuscitation room, were aged ≥65, if no surgical access was needed and if EI was performed in ≤3 attempts. Measures: All clinical data including vitals were prospectively recorded using the software ReaScribe. Main outcome was in-hospital mortality. Analyses: Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the relation between PHI and outcomes. Results: A total of 181 patients were included. When using the 90-mmHg threshold, 92 patients suffered from PIH. Mean length of stay for these PIH patients was 18.9 days, compared to 12.0 days for non-hypotensive patients (P = 0.06). Mortality rate at 24 hours was 9.78% and 15.83% for PIH and non PIH patients, respectively (p = 0.2). The 110-mmHg threshold identified 33 additional PIH patients (n = 125) and their mean length of stay was 17.8 compared to 10.2 days for non PIH patients (P = 0.02). Mortality rate at 24 hours was 9.90% for PIH patients and 21.43% for non PIH patients (p = 0.02). Conclusion: PIH was associated with a significant increase in LOS when the PIH threshold is set at 110. Mortality rate is high in the intubated ED older patient and that increasing hypotension threshold for older patient seem to have no impact on patient mortality at 24 hours. Since our sample is limited, more research is needed to confirm these results.
Introduction: Individualizing risk for stroke following a transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a topic of intense research, as existing scores are context-dependent or have not been well validated. The Canadian TIA Score stratifies risk of subsequent stroke into low, moderate and high risk. Our objective was to prospectively validate the Canadian TIA Score in a new cohort of emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 14 Canadian EDs over 4 years. We enrolled consecutive adult patients with an ED visit for TIA or nondisabling stroke. Treating physicians recorded standardized clinical variables onto data collection forms. Given the ability of prompt emergency carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to prevent stroke (NNT = 3) in high risk patients, our primary outcome was the composite of subsequent stroke or CEA ≤7 days. We conducted telephone follow-up using the validated Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status at 7 and 90 days. Outcomes were adjudicated by panels of 3 local stroke experts, blinded to the index ED data collection form. Based on prior work, we estimated a sample size of 5,004 patients including 93 subsequent strokes, would yield 95% confidence bands of +/− 10% for sensitivity and likelihood ratio (LR). Our analyses assessed interval LRs (iLR) with 95% CIs. Results: We prospectively enrolled 7,569 patients with mean 68.4 +/−14.7 years and 52.4% female, of whom 107 (1.4%) had a subsequent stroke and 74 (1.0%) CEA ≤7 days (total outcomes = 181). We enrolled 81.2% of eligible patients; missed patients were similar to enrolled. The Canadian TIA Score stratified the stroke/CEA ≤7days risk as: Low (probability <0.2%, iLR 0.20 [95%CI 0.091-0.44]; Moderate (probability 1.3%, iLR 0.79 [0.68-0.92]; High (probability 2.6%, iLR 2.2 [1.9-2.6]. Sensitivity analysis for just stroke ≤7 days yielded similar results: Low iLR 0.17 [95%CI 0.056-0.52], Medium iLR 0.89 [0.75-1.1], High iLR 2.0 [1.6-2.4]. Conclusion: The Canadian TIA Score accurately identifies TIA patients risk for stroke/CEA ≤7 days. Patients classified as low risk can be safely discharged following a careful ED assessment with elective follow-up. Patients at moderate risk can undergo additional testing in the ED, have antithrombotic therapy optimized, and be offered early stroke specialist follow-up. Patients at high risk should in most cases be fully investigated and managed ideally in consultation with a stroke specialist during their index ED visit.
Introduction: While negative consequences of incident delirium on functional and cognitive decline have been widely studied, very limited data is available regarding functional and cognitive outcomes in Emergency Department (ED) patients. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of ED stay-associated delirium on older patient's functional and cognitive status at 60 days post-ED visit. Methods: This study is a planned sub-analysis of a large multicentre prospective cohort study (the INDEED study). This project took place between March and July of the years 2015 and 2016 within 5 participating EDs across the province of Quebec. Independent non-delirious patients aged □65, with an ED stay at least 8hrs were monitored until 24hrs post-ward admission. A 60-day follow-up phone assessment was also conducted. Participants were screened for delirium using the validated Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and the severity of its symptoms was measured using the Delirium Index. Functional and cognitive status were assessed at baseline as well as at the 60-day follow-up using the validated OARS and TICS-m. Results: A total of 608 patients were recruited, 393 of which completed the 60-day follow-up. Sixty-nine patients obtained a positive CAM during ED-stay or within the first 24 hours following ward admission. At 60-days, those patients experienced a loss of 3.1 (S.D. 4.0) points on the OARS scale compared to non-delirious patients who lost 1.6 (S.D. 3.0) (p = 0.03). A significant difference in cognitive function was also noted at 60-days, as delirious patients’ TICS-m score decreased by 2.1 (S.D. 6.2) compared to non-delirious patients, who showed a minor improvement of 0.5 (S.D. 5.8) (p = 0.01). Conclusion: People who developed ED stay-associated delirium have lower baseline functional and cognitive status than non-delirious patients and they will experience a more significant decline at 60 days post-ED visit.
Introduction: This systematic scoping review aims to synthetize the available evidence on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical characteristics, screening tools, prevention strategies, interventions and knowledge of health care providers regarding elder abuse in the emergency department (ED). Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using three databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library). Grey literature was scrutinized. Studies were considered eligible when they were observational studies or randomized control trials reporting on elder abuse in the prehospital and/or ED setting. Data extraction was performed independently by two researchers and a qualitative approach was used to synthetize the findings. Results: A total of 443 citations were retrieved from which 58 studies published between 1988 and 2018 were finally included. Prevalence of elder abuse following an ED visit varied between 0.01% and 0.03%. Reporting of elder abuse to proper law authorities by ED physicians varied between 2% to 50% of suspected cases. The most common reported type of elder abuse detected was neglect followed by physical abuse. Female gender was the most consistent factor associated with elder abuse. Cognitive impairment, behavioral problems and psychiatric disorder of the patient or the caregiver were also associated with physical abuse and neglect as well as more frequent ED consultations. Several screening tools have been proposed, but ED-based validation is lacking. Literature on prehospital- or ED-initiated prevention and interventions was scarce without any controlled trial. Health care providers were poorly trained to detect and care for older adults who are suspected of being a victim of elder abuse. Conclusion: Elder abuse in the ED is an understudied topic. It remains underrecognized and underreported with ED prevalence rates lower than those in community-dwelling older adults. Health care providers reported lacking appropriate training and knowledge with regards to elder abuse. Dedicated ED studies are required.
Introduction: The Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) identifies the level of urgency when patients arrive to the Emergency department (ED). Sepsis is challenging to recognize and is associated with significant mortality (30 to 50%). The integration of the COP criteria allows for earlier detection and management of sepsis.The CTAS's validity and reliability are debated. The NEWS score has been suggested to allow a timely recognition of sepsis.Objectives:To describe patient orientation at ED triage with the NEWS vs. the CTAS and COP criteria and to identify the NEWS's ability to detect patients who will require admission to critical care. Methods: Design: A retrospective cohort study of ED 225 patients (January-November 2018) is was constituted. Participants: Patients were included if they were aged ≥18, consulting to the ED, presented one of the 32 diagnoses included in the CMI-10. Measurements: Retained variables are sex, age, CTAS score and level of care. The NEWS score was calculated from triage vital signs. Main outcome was Patient orientation after ED triage using CTAS vs the NEWS score. Descriptive statistics to determine patient orientation based on the NEWS and CTAS were performed. Fisher tests (α = 0.05) were used to assess a possible association between both triage scales and identify the NEWS's ability to detect patients who will require admission to critical care during. Sample size was calculated in order to detect a 15% difference between actual orientation and theoretical orientation based on the NEWS. Results: The retained cohort (45% men) were aged 66 ± 21 years. 67% were admitted, 14% of which to a critical care unit. Average length of hospital stay was 6.3 ± 7.8 days. Primary objective: patient orientation after triage using CTAS vs the NEWS was: 29% vs. 18% for high risk patients; 2% vs. 67% for low risk patients (p < 0.0001), respectively. Secondary objective: Among patients with stable NEWS score, 53% were admitted to hospital among patients with medium NEWS score, 9% of patients were admitted to the critical care (p = 0.0003) Conclusion: Patient orientation after ED triage using CTAS vs the NEWS is significantly different. The NEWS alone does not seem to be able to detect patients who will require admission to critical care. Future studies exploring an aggregate scoring system combining the NEWS and CTAS could be performed to determine if sepsis recognition and patient orientation can be improved
Introduction: It is recommended that seniors consulting to the Emergency Department (ED) undergo a comprehensive geriatric screening, which is difficult for most EDs. Patient self-assessment using electronic tablet could be an interesting solution to this issue. However, the acceptability of self-assessment by older ED patients remains unknown. Assessing acceptability is a fundamental step in evaluating new interventions. The main objective of this project is to compare the acceptability of older patient self-assessment in the ED to that of a standard assessment made by a professional, according to seniors and their caregivers. Methods: Design: This randomized crossover design cohort study took place between May and July 2018. Participants: 1) Patients aged ≥65 years consulting to the ED, 2) their caregiver, when present. Measurements: Patients performed self-assessment of their frailty, cognitive and functional status using an electronic tablet. Acceptability was measured using the Treatment Acceptability and Preferences (TAP) questionnaires. Analyses: Descriptive analyses were performed for sociodemographic variables. Scores were adjusted for confounding variables using multivariate linear regression. Thematic content analysis was performed by two independent analysts for qualitative data collected in the TAP's open-ended question. Results: A total of 67 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 75.5 ± 8.0 and 55.2% of participants were women. Adjusted mean TAP scores for RA evaluation and patient self-assessment were 2.36 and 2.20, respectively. We found no difference between the two types of evaluations (p = 0.0831). When patients are stratified by age groups, patients aged 85 and over (n = 11) showed a difference between the TAPs scores, 2.27 for RA evaluation and 1.72 for patient self-assessment (p = 0.0053). Our qualitative data shows that this might be attributed to the use of technology, rather than to the self-assessment itself. Data from 9 caregivers showed a 2.42 mean TAP score for RA evaluation and 2.44 for self-assessment. However, this relatively small sample size prevented us to perform statistical tests. Conclusion: Our results show that older patients find self-assessment in the ED using an electronic tablet just as acceptable as a standard evaluation by a professional.