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The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute-care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical-site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014.1 This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). It is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), the American Hospital Association (AHA), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
We performed a point-prevalence study of antimicrobial prescriptions in 9 pediatric postacute and long-term care (pPALTC) settings. Antimicrobials were prescribed for 5%–7% of residents including infectious (41%), noninfectious (24%), prophylaxis (24%), and unknown (11%) indications. Macrolides were often prescribed for noninfectious indications. Developing treatment guidelines are antimicrobial stewardship opportunities for pPALTC.
To describe the clinical impact of healthcare-associated (HA) respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized adults.
Retrospective cohort study within a prospective, population-based, surveillance study of RSV-infected hospitalized adults during 3 respiratory seasons: October 2017–April 2018, October 2018–April 2019, and October 2019–March 2020.
The study was conducted in 2 academically affiliated medical centers.
Each HA-RSV patient (in whom RSV was detected by PCR test ≥4 days after hospital admission) was matched (age, sex, season) with 2 community-onset (CO) RSV patients (in whom RSV was detected ≤3 days of admission).
Risk factors and outcomes were compared among HA-RSV versus CO-RSV patients using conditional logistic regression. Escalation of respiratory support associated with RSV detection (day 0) from day −2 to day +4 was explored among HA-RSV patients.
In total, 84 HA-RSV patients were matched to 160 CO-RSV patients. In HA-RSV patients, chronic kidney disease was more common, while chronic respiratory conditions and obesity were less common. HA-RSV patients were not more likely to be admitted to an ICU or require mechanical ventilation, but they more often required a higher level of care at discharge compared with CO-RSV patients (44% vs 14%, respectively). Also, 29% of evaluable HA-RSV patients required respiratory support escalation; these patients were older and more likely to have respiratory comorbidities, to have been admitted to intensive care, and to die during hospitalization.
HA-RSV in adults may be associated with escalation in respiratory support and an increased level of support in living situation at discharge. Infection prevention and control strategies and RSV vaccination of high-risk adults could mitigate the risk of HA-RSV.
To reduce both inappropriate testing for and diagnosis of healthcare-onset (HO) Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs).
We performed a retrospective analysis of C. difficile testing from hospitalized children before (October 2017–October 2018) and after (November 2018–October 2020) implementing restrictive computerized provider order entry (CPOE).
Study sites included hospital A (a ∼250-bed freestanding children’s hospital) and hospital B (a ∼100-bed children’s hospital within a larger hospital) that are part of the same multicampus institution.
In October 2018, we implemented CPOE. No testing was allowed for infants aged ≤12 months, approval of the infectious disease team was required to test children aged 13–23 months, and pathology residents’ approval was required to test all patients aged ≥24 months with recent laxative, stool softener, or enema use. Interrupted time series analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis.
An interrupted time series analysis revealed that from October 2017 to October 2020, the numbers of tests ordered and samples sent significantly decreased in all age groups (P < .05). The monthly median number of HO-CDI cases significantly decreased after implementation of the restrictive CPOE in children aged 13–23 months (P < .001) and all ages combined (P = .003).
Restrictive CPOE for CDI in pediatrics was successfully implemented and sustained. Diagnostic stewardship for CDI is likely cost-saving and could decrease misdiagnosis, unnecessary antibiotic therapy, and overestimation of HO-CDI rates.
Background: Evidence-based infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to reduce healthcare-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries may be difficult to implement due to lack of resources. We pilot-tested the feasibility of virtual assessments of IPC practices in African facilities caring for small and/or sick neonates for opportunities to improve IPC. Methods: We created a checklist (in English and French) to assess IPC practices in African facilities caring for small and/or sick neonates Results: In total, 10 sites participated in this pilot study. Among them, 3 sites had unreliable Internet connections, and all checklist items could be observed and scored in these videos and photos. The lowest scores occurred for kangaroo mother care (KMC) spacing and presence of screens (Table 1). Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of using virtual assessments of IPC practices. We identified several potentially low-cost opportunities to improve IPC. We are recruiting additional sites to confirm the findings of this pilot study.
Background: Little is known about the impact of healthcare-associated respiratory syncytial virus (HA-RSV) in hospitalized children. To address this gap, we assessed the epidemiology and clinical impact associated with HA-RSV in a multiseason, multicenter study. Methods: During respiratory viral seasons 2016–2017, 2017–2018, and 2018–2019, we retrospectively identified HA-RSV cases in hospitalized children 72 hours after admission or within 48 hours of discharge in readmitted patients. Due to reduced availability of testing for non–SARS-CoV-2 viruses during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2019–2020 season was excluded. We initiated prospective HA-RSV surveillance during the 2020–2021 season and continued surveillance through November 2021 due to the unusual interseasonal RSV community outbreak. We determined demographic and clinical characteristics of HA-RSV cases and explored possible outcomes associated with RSV including transfer to the pediatric ICU and escalation of respiratory support from day −2 to day +4 (day 0 was the day of RSV detection). We explored the timeframe of day −2 to day +4 because events during this timeframe could be attributed to RSV infection. Respiratory support escalation was defined as change from room air to supplemental oxygen, increase in fraction of inspired oxzygen (FiO2) on same respiratory support modality, or change from noninvasive to invasive support. Results: Were identified 86 HA-RSV cases: 20 (23.3%) from 2016–2017, 26 (30.2%) from 2017–2018, 34 (39.5%) from 2018–2019, and 6 (7%) from October 2020–November 2021. HA-RSV was diagnosed a median of 14 days (IQR, 8–45) after admission. Moreover, 29 (33.7%), 31 (36.0%), and 26 (30.2%) cases were aged 60 months during these, respective seasons. Also, 33 (38.4%) had >3 comorbid conditions, most commonly gastrointestinal (n = 33, 38.4%), respiratory (n = 28, 32.6%), and/or congenital–genetic disorders (n = 28, 32.6%). However, 9 (10.5%) had no comorbid conditions. From day −2 to day +4, 15 children (17.4%) were transferred to the PICU and 38 (49.3%) of 77 evaluable cases required respiratory support escalation, most commonly supplemental oxygen delivered by nasal cannula (n = 15, 19.5%). Furthermore, 11 patients (14.3%) required invasive support. Conclusions: HA-RSV was associated with use of healthcare resources, including the need for respiratory support escalation and/or transfer to intensive care. From October 2020 to November 2021, lower numbers of HA-RSV were observed. The reasons for this are unknown, but potentially occurred in parallel to markedly reduced RSV in the community and may have resulted from visitor restrictions, which included no siblings and/or universal masking by hospital staff and visitors.
Funding: Funding for this research was provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co.
Inpatient surgical site infections (SSIs) cause morbidity in children. The SSI rate among pediatric ambulatory surgery patients is less clear. To fill this gap, we conducted a multiple-institution, retrospective epidemiologic study to identify incidence, risk factors, and outcomes.
We identified patients aged <22 years with ambulatory visits between October 2010 and September 2015 via electronic queries at 3 medical centers. We performed sample chart reviews to confirm ambulatory surgery and adjudicate SSIs. Weighted Poisson incidence rates were calculated. Separately, we used case–control methodology using multivariate backward logistical regression to assess risk-factor association with SSI.
In total, 65,056 patients were identified by queries, and we performed complete chart reviews for 13,795 patients; we identified 45 SSIs following ambulatory surgery. The weighted SSI incidence following pediatric ambulatory surgery was 2.00 SSI per 1,000 ambulatory surgeries (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–3.00). Integumentary surgeries had the highest weighted SSI incidence, 3.24 per 1,000 ambulatory surgeries (95% CI, 0.32–12). The following variables carried significantly increased odds of infection: clean contaminated or contaminated wound class compared to clean (odds ratio [OR], 9.8; 95% CI, 2.0–48), other insurance type compared to private (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6–9.8), and surgery on weekend day compared to weekday (OR, 30; 95% CI, 2.9–315). Of the 45 instances of SSI following pediatric ambulatory surgery, 40% of patients were admitted to the hospital and 36% required a new operative procedure or bedside incision and drainage.
Our findings suggest that morbidity is associated with SSI following ambulatory surgery in children, and we also identified possible targets for intervention.
To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health.
The study included 26 geographically diverse adult and pediatric infectious diseases clinicians with expertise in healthcare-associated infection prevention and/or antimicrobial stewardship (topic identification and ranking of priorities), as well as members of the Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (topic identification).
Using a modified Delphi approach, expert recommendations were generated through an iterative process for identifying pediatric research priorities in healthcare associated infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. The multistep, 7-month process included a literature review, interactive teleconferences, web-based surveys, and 2 in-person meetings.
A final list of 12 high-priority research topics were generated in the 2 domains. High-priority healthcare-associated infection topics included judicious testing for Clostridioides difficile infection, chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, measuring and preventing hospital-onset bloodstream infection rates, surgical site infection prevention, surveillance and prevention of multidrug resistant gram-negative rod infections. Antimicrobial stewardship topics included β-lactam allergy de-labeling, judicious use of perioperative antibiotics, intravenous to oral conversion of antimicrobial therapy, developing a patient-level “harm index” for antibiotic exposure, and benchmarking and or peer comparison of antibiotic use for common inpatient conditions.
We identified 6 healthcare-associated infection topics and 6 antimicrobial stewardship topics as potentially high-impact targets for pediatric research.
An observational study was conducted to characterize high-touch surfaces in emergency departments and hemodialysis facilities. Certain surfaces were touched with much greater frequency than others. A small number of surfaces accounted for the majority of touch episodes. Prioritizing disinfection of these surfaces may reduce pathogen transmission within healthcare environments.
Background: The healthcare environment can serve as a reservoir for many microorganisms and, in the absence of appropriate cleaning and disinfection, can contribute to pathogen transmission. Identification of high-touch surfaces (HTS) in hospital patient rooms has allowed the recognition of surfaces that represent the greatest transmission risk and prioritization of cleaning and disinfection resources for infection prevention. HTS in other healthcare settings, including high-volume and high-risk settings such as emergency departments (EDs) and hemodialysis facilities (HDFs), have not been well studied or defined. Methods: Observations were conducted in 2 EDs and 3 HDFs using structured observation tools. All touch episodes, defined as hand-to-surface contact regardless of hand hygiene and/or glove use, were recorded. Touches by healthcare personnel, patients, and visitors were included. Surfaces were classified as being allocated to individual patients or shared among multiple patients. The number of touch episodes per hour was calculated for each surface to rank surfaces by frequency of touch. Results: In total, 28 hours of observation (14 hours each in EDs and HDFs) were conducted. 1,976 touch episodes were observed among 62 surfaces. On average, more touch episodes were observed per hour in HDFs than in EDs (89 vs 52, respectively). The most frequently touched surfaces in EDs included stretcher rails, privacy curtains, visitor chair arm rests and seats, and patient bedside tables, which together accounted for 68.8% of all touch episodes in EDs (Fig. 1). Frequently touched surfaces in HDFs included both shared and single-patient surfaces: 27.8% and 72.2% of HDF touch episodes, respectively. The most frequently touched surfaces in HDFs were supply cart drawers, dialysis machine control panels and keyboards, handwashing faucet handles, bedside work tables, and bed rail or dialysis chair armrests, which accounted for 68.4% of all touch-episodes recorded. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to identify HTSs in EDs and HDFs. Our observations reveal that certain surfaces within these environments are subject to a substantially greater frequency of hand contact than others and that a relatively small number of surfaces account for most touch episodes. Notably, whereas HTSs in EDs were primarily single-patient surfaces, HTSs in HDFs included surfaces shared in the care of multiple patients, which may represent an even greater risk of patient-to-patient pathogen transmission than single-patient surfaces. The identification of HTSs in EDs and HDFs contributes to a better understanding of the risk of environment-related pathogen transmission in these settings and may allow prioritization and optimization of cleaning and disinfection resources within facilities.
Background: Measles can cause miscarriages and preterm birth in nonimmune pregnant women. During the 2018–2019 measles outbreak in New York, a woman with measles delivered an extremely low birth weight preterm infant at our Women and Children’s Hospital. We describe our measles preparedness strategies and infection prevention and control (IPC) management relevant to congenital measles. Methods: Because of the measles outbreak, in Q4 2018, IPC verified measles immunity in all obstetric and pediatric staff, per state regulations, and recommended determining the measles immune status of all pregnant women. To prevent measles exposure, visitor restrictions for the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were implemented (May 2019); only 3 visitors were permitted for each infant, including parents. All visitors had to provide written documentation of immunity to measles, regardless of epidemiologic risk factors or receive an MMR vaccine prior to visiting. New York state and New York City health departments performed measles diagnostic testing for maternal and infant specimens. Results: Our hospital was informed of the imminent transfer of a woman in preterm labor with suspected measles. To avoid any exposure, the mother was masked in the ambulance bay and taken by commandeered elevator to the obstetrical operating room suite, which was cleared of other patients. She delivered by C-section and was transferred to an airborne infection isolation (AII) room. The 25-week-gestation infant was transported by isolette to the NICU and was placed on AII. Testing confirmed measles in the mother (measles PCR- and IgM-positive) and congenital measles in the infant (Table 1). The mother was allowed to visit the NICU when her respiratory symptoms and rash resolved, as confirmed by her provider, ~10 days after discharge. The infant never developed a rash, pneumonia, or neurologic findings. AII was discontinued on day of life 61 in consultation with the health departments. The infant was discharged at ~36 weeks gestation. No secondary cases of measles occurred among patients, visitors, or staff. Conclusions: We safely cared for an extremely preterm infant with congenital measles. Laboratory testing suggested prolonged presence of measles virus, but it is unknown how long an infant in the NICU should remain on AII. The current Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists case definition for measles requires the presence of rash. This case provides support to revise this case definition if laboratory findings are consistent with congenital measles.
Background: As many as 40% of infants aged ≤12 months and 10%–28% of children aged 13–24 months are colonized by Clostridioides difficile. The IDSA and the SHEA recommend that testing should never be routinely recommended for infants ≤12 months of age and should not be routinely performed for children 1–2 years of age unless other causes are excluded. We report implementation of C. difficile diagnostic stewardship at 2 children’s hospitals. Methods: We implemented age-based restrictions for C. difficile testing at hospital A (∼200-bed, free-standing, children’s hospital) and hospital B (∼100-bed children’s hospital within a larger hospital). Both sites are part of the same multicampus institution, and both used nucleic acid amplification testing to detect C. difficile throughout the study. In May 2018, we implemented an electronic order set for C. difficile that provided alerts to avoid testing young infants and patients with recent use of laxatives, stool softeners, or enemas, but providers could order C. difficile testing at their discretion. In October 2018, we implemented a more restrictive diagnostic stewardship algorithm for C. difficile. No testing was allowed for infants aged ≤12 months. Approval pediatric infectious diseases staff was required to test children aged 13–24 months. Pathology resident approval was required to test children aged ≥24 months who had received laxatives, stool softeners, or enemas within ≤24 hours. Clinical microbiology laboratory supervisors reinforced rejection of nondiarrheal stool specimens for testing. Providers at both campuses were informed about the new testing guidelines by e-mail. We compared the number of tests sent and positive cases of healthcare facility-onset C. difficile (HO-CDI) by age strata before and after the implementation of the restrictive testing algorithm. Results: After the intervention, the number of tests in infants significantly declined; 2 infants aged ≤12 months and 4 infants aged 13–24 months were tested for C. difficile (Table). After the intervention, the number of tests per month declined at hospital A, as did the number of HO-CDI cases at both hospitals. Rejections of nondiarrheal stools significantly increased after the intervention (P < .001). Conclusions:C. difficile diagnostic stewardship for children was successfully implemented using a rule-based alert system in the electronic health record. This intervention was associated with a reduced number of tests sent and cases of HO-CDI. This strategy was cost-saving and prevented misdiagnosis, unnecessary antibiotic therapy, and overestimation of HO-CDI rates.
Ambulatory healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occur frequently in children and are associated with morbidity. Less is known about ambulatory HAI costs. This study estimated additional costs associated with pediatric ambulatory central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and surgical site infections (SSIs) following ambulatory surgery.
Retrospective case-control study.
Four academic medical centers.
Children aged 0–22 years seen between 2010 and 2015 and at risk for HAI as identified by electronic queries.
Chart review adjudicated HAIs. Charges were obtained for patients with HAIs and matched controls 30 days before HAI, on the day of, and 30 days after HAI. Charges were converted to costs and 2015 USD. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to estimate the difference-in-differences of HAI case versus control costs in 2 models: unrecorded charge values considered missing and a sensitivity analysis with unrecorded charge considered $0.
Our search identified 177 patients with ambulatory CLABSIs, 53 with ambulatory CAUTIs, and 26 with SSIs following ambulatory surgery who were matched with 382, 110, and 75 controls, respectively. Additional cost associated with an ambulatory CLABSI was $5,684 (95% confidence interval [CI], $1,005–$10,362) and $6,502 (95% CI, $2,261–$10,744) in the 2 models; cost associated with a CAUTI was $6,660 (95% CI, $1,055, $12,145) and $2,661 (95% CI, −$431 to $5,753); cost associated with an SSI following ambulatory surgery at 1 institution only was $6,370 (95% CI, $4,022–$8,719).
Ambulatory HAI in pediatric patients are associated with significant additional costs. Further work is needed to reduce ambulatory HAIs.
To describe changes in the environmental microbiota of a new neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and potential implications for infection prevention and control (IPC) efforts.
Prospective observational study.
A newly constructed level IV neonatal cardiac intensive care unit (NCICU) before and after patient introduction and the original NICU prior to patient transfer.
Environmental samples were obtained from the original NICU prior to patient transfer to a new NCICU. Serial sampling of patient rooms and provider areas of the new NICU was conducted immediately prior to patient introduction and over an 11-month study period. Microbiota at each sampling point were characterized using Illumina sequencing of the V3/V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbiota characteristics (α and β diversity and differential abundance) were compared based on time, location, and clinical factors (room-level antibiotic use and patient turnover).
An immediate increase in the environmental differential abundance of gut anaerobes were seen after patient introduction. There was an increase in the relative abundance of Staphylococcus spp, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Streptococcus spp over time. The new NCICU consistently showed more diverse microbiota and remained distinct from the original NICU. The microbiota of the provider areas of the NCICU eventually formed a cluster separate from the patient rooms. Patient turnover increased room-level microbiota diversity.
Microbiota characteristics of the new NICU were distinct from the original ICU despite housing similar patients. Patient and provider areas developed distinct microbiota profiles. Non–culture-based methods may be a useful adjunct to current IPC practice.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) occur frequently in pediatric inpatients, and they are associated with increased morbidity and cost. Few studies have investigated ambulatory CAUTIs, despite at-risk children utilizing home urinary catheterization. This retrospective cohort and case-control study determined incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of pediatric patients with ambulatory CAUTI.
Broad electronic queries identified potential patients with ambulatory urinary catheters, and direct chart review confirmed catheters and adjudicated whether ambulatory CAUTI occurred. CAUTI definitions included clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Our matched case-control analysis assessed risk factors.
Five urban, academic medical centers, part of the New York City Clinical Data Research Network.
Potential patients were age <22 years who were seen between October 2010 and September 2015.
In total, 3,598 eligible patients were identified; 359 of these used ambulatory catheterization (representing186,616 ambulatory catheter days). Of these, 63 patients (18%) experienced 95 ambulatory CAUTIs. The overall ambulatory CAUTI incidence was 0.51 infections per 1,000 catheter days (1.35 for indwelling catheters and 0.47 for CIC; incidence rate ratio, 2.88). Patients with nonprivate medical insurance (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–6.3) were significantly more likely to have ambulatory CAUTIs in bivariate models but not multivariable models. Also, 45% of ambulatory CAUTI resulted in hospitalization (median duration, 3 days); 5% resulted in intensive care admission; 47% underwent imaging; and 88% were treated with antibiotics.
Pediatric ambulatory CAUTIs occur in 18% of patients with catheters; they are associated with morbidity and healthcare utilization. Ambulatory indwelling catheter CAUTI incidence exceeded national inpatient incidence. Future quality improvement research to reduce these harmful infections is warranted.
Pediatric long-term care facilities were surveyed to assess infection control and antimicrobial stewardship practices. Policies mandated by the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) were included. Only 40% of sites reported implementing >90% of surveyed CMS policies. The survey also identified several gaps in non–CMS-mandated policies.
To sustainably improve cleaning of high-touch surfaces (HTSs) in acute-care hospitals using a multimodal approach to education, reduction of barriers to cleaning, and culture change for environmental services workers.
The study was conducted in 2 academic acute-care hospitals, 2 community hospitals, and an academic pediatric and women’s hospital.
Frontline environmental services workers.
A 5-module educational program, using principles of adult learning theory, was developed and presented to environmental services workers. Audience response system (ARS), videos, demonstrations, role playing, and graphics were used to illustrate concepts of and the rationale for infection prevention strategies. Topics included hand hygiene, isolation precautions, personal protective equipment (PPE), cleaning protocols, and strategies to overcome barriers. Program evaluation included ARS questions, written evaluations, and objective assessments of occupied patient room cleaning. Changes in hospital-onset C. difficile infection (CDI) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia were evaluated.
On average, 357 environmental service workers participated in each module. Most (93%) rated the presentations as ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’ and agreed that they were useful (95%), reported that they were more comfortable donning/doffing PPE (91%) and performing hand hygiene (96%) and better understood the importance of disinfecting HTSs (96%) after the program. The frequency of cleaning individual HTSs in occupied rooms increased from 26% to 62% (P < .001) following the intervention. Improvement was sustained 1-year post intervention (P < .001). A significant decrease in CDI was associated with the program.
A novel program that addressed environmental services workers’ knowledge gaps, challenges, and barriers was well received and appeared to result in learning, behavior change, and sustained improvements in cleaning.
In 2013, the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation developed an updated guideline for infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices for CF. We sought to assess the adoption of specific recommendations by CF care centers.
Directors of the 277 CF care centers in the United States were asked to complete a confidential online survey regarding the adoption of selected IP&C recommendations. Selected recommendations were those we considered less likely to be incorporated into a center’s written IP&C policies.
Center directors from 198 of 277 CF centers (71%) completed the survey between December 2015 and June 2016; pediatric and larger centers were more likely to do so. Overall, 70% have adopted ≥75% of the selected recommendations. As recommended, almost all provided education to CF center staff (98%) and patients and families (97%); fewer developed educational materials in collaboration with local IP&C teams (59%) and/or patients and families (37%). Among 108 centers with non–English-speaking patients, 65 (60%) provided educational materials in relevant languages. Most (74%) held group education events; of the 138 centers with in-person meetings, 45% allowed 1 individual with CF to attend, and 51% allowed no individuals with CF to attend. Most centers (93%) held outdoor events, and 84% allowed >1 individual with CF to attend. Audits of exam-room cleaning were performed by 49% of CF centers.
Cystic fibrosis centers in the United States have adopted many of the recommendations addressed in this survey. Nonetheless, these findings suggest opportunities for improvement. More CF centers should provide education to non–English-speaking patients and families, and CF centers should perform audits of room cleaning.
The correlation between ATP concentration and bacterial burden in the patient care environment was assessed. These findings suggest that a correlation exists between ATP concentration and bacterial burden, and they generally support ATP technology manufacturer-recommended cutoff values. Despite relatively modest discriminative ability, this technology may serve as a useful proxy for cleanliness.
To assess antimicrobial prescriber knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AS) and associated barriers to optimal prescribing.
A convenience sample of 2,900 US antimicrobial prescribers at 5 acute-care hospitals within a hospital network.
The following characteristics were assessed with an anonymous, online survey in February 2015: attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial resistance, AS programs, and institutional AS resources; antimicrobial prescribing and AS knowledge; and practices and confidence related to antimicrobial prescribing.
In total, 402 respondents completed the survey. Knowledge gaps were identified through case-based questions. Some respondents sometimes selected overly broad therapy for the susceptibilities given (29%) and some “usually” or “always” preferred using the most broad-spectrum empiric antimicrobials possible (32%). Nearly all (99%) reported reviewing antimicrobial appropriateness at 48–72 hours, but only 55% reported “always” doing so. Furthermore, 45% of respondents felt that they had not received adequate training regarding antimicrobial prescribing. Some respondents lacked confidence selecting empiric therapy using antibiograms (30%), interpreting susceptibility results (24%), de-escalating therapy (18%), and determining duration of therapy (31%). Postprescription review and feedback (PPRF) was the most commonly cited AS intervention (79%) with potential to improve patient care.
Barriers to appropriate antimicrobial selection and de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy were identified among front-line prescribers in acute-care hospitals. Prescribers desired more AS-related education and identified PPRF as the most helpful AS intervention to improve patient care. Educational interventions should be preceded by and tailored to local assessment of educational needs.