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Clinical practice guidelines for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder have been published. However, these have not had sufficient penetration in clinical settings. We developed the Effectiveness of Guidelines for Dissemination and Education in Psychiatric Treatment (EGUIDE) project as a dissemination and education programme for psychiatrists.
The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the EGUIDE project on the subjective clinical behaviour of psychiatrists in accordance with clinical practice guidelines before and 1 and 2 years after participation in the programmes.
A total of 607 psychiatrists participated in this study during October 2016 and March 2019. They attended both 1-day educational programmes based on the clinical practice guidelines for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and answered web questionnaires about their clinical behaviours before and 1 and 2 years after attending the programmes. We evaluated the changes in clinical behaviours in accordance with the clinical practice guidelines between before and 2 years after the programme.
All of the scores for clinical behaviours in accordance with clinical practice guidelines were significantly improved after 1 and 2 years compared with before attending the programmes. There were no significant changes in any of the scores between 1 and 2 years after attending.
All clinical behaviours in accordance with clinical practice guidelines improved after attending the EGUIDE programme, and were maintained for at least 2 years. The EGUIDE project could contribute to improved guideline-based clinical behaviour among psychiatrists.
An interdependence approach to empathic concern could transform the current societal environment for people with disability into a more accessible and equitable one. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate two possible factors influencing empathic concern, gender and ethnic culture, in specific helping scenarios. We first examined whether the female gender and collectivist culture of Japan were associated with higher levels of interdependence and empathic concern for disability than were the male gender and individualist culture of New Zealand. Empathic concern for people with impairment was assessed in accessible and inaccessible environments. Neither gender nor culture significantly influenced the level of interdependence, whereas gender and culture differentially moderated empathic concern. We also explored the possibility of altering self-construal and thus promoting prosocial behaviour by examining the correlation between self-construal and prosocial intention, and the effect of cultural priming on self-construal. The correlation was significant under inaccessible conditions in the Japanese sample, and the effect of interdependent priming was not significant on interdependent self-construal in both countries. Discussion centres on theoretical implications of the observed conditional support for the female-gender and collectivist-culture hypotheses, and on ways to promote prosocial behaviour, taking into account gender and cultural differences.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We report on interferometric observations of a face-on accretion system around the high mass young stellar object, G353.273+0.641. The innermost accretion system of 100-au radius was resolved in a 45-GHz continuum image taken with the Jansky Very Large Array. Our SED analysis indicated that the continuum could be explained by optically-thick dust emission. 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers associated with the same system were also observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The masers showed a spiral-like, non-axisymmetric distribution with a systematic velocity gradient. The line-of-sight velocity field is explained by an infall motion along a parabolic streamline that falls onto the equatorial plane of the face-on system. The streamline is quasi-radial and reaches the equatorial plane at a radius of 16 au. The physical origin of such a streamline is still an open question and will be constrained by the higher-resolution thermal continuum and line observations with ALMA long baselines.
For the high-sensitivity 6.7 GHz methanol maser observations, we developed a new technology for coherently combining the two signals from the Hitachi 32 m radio telescope and the Takahagi 32 m radio telescope of the Japanese VLBI Network. Furthermore, we compared the SNRs of the 6.7 GHz maser spectra for two methods. One is a VLBI method and the other is the newly developed digital position switching, which is a similar technology to that used in noise-cancelling headphones. We report the phase-up technique and the observation.
Despite their importance in the formation and evolution of stellar clusters and galaxies, the formation of high-mass stars remains poorly understood. We recently started a systematic observational study of the 22 GHz water and 44 GHz class I methanol masers in high-mass star-forming regions as a four-year KaVA large program. Our sample consists of 87 high-mass young stellar objects (HM-YSOs) in various evolutionary phases, many of which are associated with two or more different maser species. The primary scientific goals are to measure the spatial distributions and 3-dimensional velocity fields of multiple maser species, and understand the dynamical evolution of HM-YSOs and their circumstellar structures, in conjunction with follow-up observations with JVN/EAVN (6.7 GHz class II methanol masers), VERA, and ALMA. In this paper we present details of our KaVA large program, including the first-year results and observing/data analysis plans for the second year and beyond.
We have started survey observations of the 22 GHz water maser sources associated with high-mass young stellar objects (HM-YSOs) as a part of the KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) large program (LP). The aim of our LP is to understand dynamical evolution of jets/outflows from HM-YSOs by analyzing 3D velocity structures of water maser features. In the first year (2016-2017), an imaging survey toward 25 HM-YSOs has been conducted and the 22 GHz water masers are detected toward 21 sources. Spatial distributions of maser features for individual sources are mapped. To complement physical properties in the vicinity of HM-YSOs, we have carried out ALMA cycle 3 observations of thermal molecular lines and continuum emissions toward 11 selected samples. Summary of the KaVA first year observations and the initial results from the ALMA toward one of our targets, G25.82-0.17, are reported.
The water maser site associated with G353.273+0.641 is classified as a dominant blueshifted H2O maser, which shows an extremely wide velocity range (± 100 km s−1) with almost all flux concentrated in the highly blueshifted emission. The previous study has proposed that this peculiar H2O maser site is excited by a pole-on jet from high mass protostellar object. We report on the monitoring of 22-GHz H2O maser emission from G353.273+0.641 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the Tomakamai 11-m radio telescope. Our VLBI imaging has shown that all maser features are distributed within a very small area of 200 × 200 au2, in spite of the wide velocity range (> 100 km s−1). The light curve obtained by weekly single-dish monitoring shows notably intermittent variation. We have detected three maser flares during three years. Frequent VLBI monitoring has revealed that these flare activities have been accompanied by a significant change of the maser alignments. We have also detected synchronized linear acceleration (−5 km s−1yr−1) of two isolated velocity components, suggesting a lower-limit momentum rate of 10−3 M⊙ km s−1yr−1 for the maser acceleration. All our results support the previously proposed pole-on jet scenario, and finally, a radio jet itself has been detected in our follow-up ATCA observation. If highly intermittent maser flares directly reflect episodic jet-launchings, G353.273+0.641 and similar dominant blueshifted water maser sources can be suitable targets for a time-resolved study of high mass protostellar jet.
We are using a Japanese VLBI network (JVN) for VLBI observations of 6.7-GHz methanol masers associated with massive star-forming regions. Here we present results for Cepheus A (Cep A) from observations taken on September 9, 2006. The distribution of the maser spots indicates either a spherical bubble or a disk having an inclination of several tens degree. We construct a disk model with an inclination of ~70° and a radius of ~700 AU. From a luminosity of 1.7 × 104L⊙ for a source observed in this region, the excitation of the maser is probably radiative.
The Japanese VLBI network (JVN) has begun observations of 6.7-GHz methanol masers associated with massive star-forming regions. The JVN is a newly-established VLBI array with baselines ranging from 50 to 2560 km spread across the Japanese islands. Three observing bands of 6.7, 8.4, and 22 GHz are now available. The array consists of ten antennas: VERA Mizusawa 20 m, VERA Ishigaki 20 m, VERA Iriki 20 m, Usuda 64 m, Yamaguchi 32 m, Tomakomai 11 m, Tsukuba 32 m, Kashima 34 m, VERA Ogasawara 20 m, and Gifu 11 m, the first five of which have 6.7-GHz receiving systems. In summer 2005, we obtained the first fringes at 6.7 GHz, and VLBI images of 12 methanol maser sites including seven that had not previously been imaged with VLBI at this band. In 2006 summer, we obtained phase-reference observations toward several methanol maser sites.
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