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The re-emergence of debates on the decolonisation of knowledge has revived interest in the National Question, which began over a century ago and remains unresolved. Tensions that were suppressed and hidden in the past are now being openly debated. Despite this, the goal of one united nation living prosperously under a constitutional democracy remains elusive. This edited volume examines the way in which various strands of left thought have addressed the National Question, especially during the apartheid years, and goes on to discuss its relevance for South Africa today and in the future. Instead of imposing a particular understanding of the National Question, the editors identified a number of political traditions and allowed contributors the freedom to define the question as they believed appropriate – in other words, to explain what they thought was the Unresolved National Question. This has resulted in a rich tapestry of interweaving perceptions. The volume is structured in two parts. The first examines four foundational traditions: Marxism-Leninism (the Colonialism of a Special Type thesis); the Congress tradition; the Trotskyist tradition; and Africanism. The second part explores the various shifts in the debate from the 1960s onwards, and includes chapters on Afrikaner nationalism, ethnic issues, black consciousness, feminism, workerism and constitutionalism. The editors hope that by revisiting the debates not popularly known among the scholarly mainstream, this volume will become a catalyst for an enriched debate on our identity and our future.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms of neural plasticity
John H. Byrne, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA,
Diasinou Fioravante, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA,
Evangelos G. Antzoulatos, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA
The neural mechanisms that contribute to the adaptation of an organism to environmental changes through learning are likely to contribute to the adaptation of the organism to physical changes (e.g., trauma) through repair and rehabilitation. Learning can be distinguished depending on whether it is associative or nonassociative. The examination of learning in simple model systems, such as the marine mollusc Aplysia californica, has proven to be very fruitful. The simplicity and tractability of the neural circuits mediating some behaviors in Aplysia have allowed the cellular/molecular dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms. Indeed a number of critical cells, synapses, and molecules have been identified in Aplysia to mediate basic forms of learning. One way to recruit the processes of neuronal plasticity in repair and rehabilitation is through behavioral learning paradigms, which provide the basis for current therapeutic strategies.
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