The dangers presented by antibiotic resistance (ABR) have now established themselves as a global health security issue. From an international policy perspective, three key pillars have been established: responsible access, conservation, and innovation. These pillars are intrinsically linked, meaning that any attempt to address one must take into account the implications for the other two.
An urgent need exists to address the innovation failure in ABR. In the field of anti-bacterials, the pipeline remains anemic in terms of therapeutics with novel mechanisms of action, new drug classes and strategies involving radically different, innovative approaches. The key reasons for this failure have already been well established. The slow development of new antibiotics is the result of a poor and uncertain commercial market and scientific challenges in research and development (R&D).