To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Bidirectional longitudinal relationships between depression and diabetes have been observed, but the dominant direction of their temporal relationships remains controversial.
The random-intercept cross-lagged panel model decomposes observed variables into a latent intercept representing the traits, and occasion-specific latent ‘state’ variables. This permits correlations to be assessed between the traits, while longitudinal ‘cross-lagged’ associations and cross-sectional correlations can be assessed between occasion-specific latent variables. We examined dynamic relationships between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance across five visits over 20 years of adulthood in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Possible differences based on population group (Black v. White participants), sex and years of education were tested. Depressive symptoms and insulin resistance were quantified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), respectively.
Among 4044 participants (baseline mean age 34.9 ± 3.7 years, 53% women, 51% Black participants), HOMA-IR and CES-D traits were weakly correlated (r = 0.081, p = 0.002). Some occasion-specific correlations, but no cross-lagged associations were observed overall. Longitudinal dynamics of these relationships differed by population groups such that HOMA-IR at age 50 was associated with CES-D score at age 55 (β = 0.076, p = 0.038) in White participants only. Longitudinal dynamics were consistent between sexes and based on education.
The relationship between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was best characterized by weak correlations between occasion-specific states and enduring traits, with weak evidence that insulin resistance might be temporally associated with subsequent depressive symptoms among White participants later in adulthood.
Several guidelines currently recommend acute diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for the detection of ischemia in transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, DWI hyperintensities resolve early and only 30%–50% with clinically defined TIA show acute DWI positivity. A recent meta-analysis reported an unexplained 7-fold variation in DWI positivity in TIA across studies, concluding that DWI does not provide a consistent basis for defining ischemia. Intracortical excitability, measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), has previously been shown to be altered after TIA and associated with ABCD2 scores; however, whether altered cortical excitability is associated with clinical and DWI-based definitions of TIA remains unclear.
Individuals with TIA symptoms (N = 23; mean age = 61 ± 12) were prospectively recruited and underwent DWI and paired-pulse TMS. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between TMS-derived excitability thresholds, and clinical TIA diagnosis, and imaging-based evidence of cerebral ischemia (DWI positivity). Area under the curve (AUC) analyses was used to compare the discriminability of TMS-derived thresholds and clinical TIA diagnoses.
Thresholds for intracortical inhibition in the TIA-unaffected hemisphere were significantly associated with the clinical diagnosis of TIA. No associations between TMS-derived thresholds and DWI positivity were observed. TMS thresholds showed low-moderate discriminability and values differed by age (65+) and sex.
In this small sample, TMS-derived markers of intracortical excitability were associated with clinical TIA diagnoses but not DWI positivity. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the potential discriminative utility of TMS for the diagnosis of TIA and highlight the need for future work in larger cohorts.
Background: Hospitalization data underestimate the occurrence of transient ischemic attack (TIA). As TIA is frequently diagnosed in primary care, methodologies for the accurate ascertainment of a TIA from physician claims data are required for surveillance and health systems planning in this population. The present study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiple algorithms for TIA from a longitudinal population-based physician billing database. Methods: Population-based administrative data from the province of British Columbia were used to identify the base population (1992–2007; N=102,492). Using discharge records for hospital admissions for acute ischemic stroke with a recent (<90 days) TIA as the reference standard, we performed receiver-operating characteristic analyses to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy, and to compare area under the curve for each physician billing algorithm. To evaluate the impact of different case definitions on population-based TIA burden, we also estimated the annual TIA occurrence associated with each algorithm. Results: Physician billing algorithms showed low to moderate sensitivity, with the algorithm for two consecutive physician visits within 90 days showing the highest sensitivity at 37.7% (CI95%=37.4–38.1). All algorithms demonstrated high specificity and moderate to high overall accuracy, resulting in low positive predictive values (≤5%), low discriminability (0.53–0.57) and high false positive rates (1 – specificity). Population-based estimates of TIA occurrence were comparable to prior studies and declined over time. Conclusions: Physician billing data have insufficient sensitivity to identify TIAs but may be used in combination with hospital discharge data to improve the accuracy of estimating the population-based occurrence of TIAs.
To characterize the probability and duration of viral shedding among adults given trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LATV).
Prospective surveillance study.
Nasal wash samples were collected from adult volunteers at baseline and on days 3, 7, and 10 and between days 17 and 21 following intranasal LAIV vaccination. The presence, titer, and identification of each specific strain of influenza virus shed were determined by standard methodology.
Twenty subjects received LATV. No samples were positive for influenza virus at baseline. After LAIV vaccination, influenza virus was recovered from 10 of 20 vaccinees on day 3, from 1 of 18 vaccinees on day 7, and from none of the samples on days 10 or 17 through 21. Vaccinees who shed vaccine virus were significantly younger than those who did not (mean age, 26.4 vs 38.6 years; P < .01). Although the presence of specific mucosal immunoglobulin A to influenza B was associated with significantly less shedding of influenza B after vaccination (P = .02), associations of shedding with other measures of immunity were not detected.
The duration of shedding of vaccine virus after LAIV in adults is limited and may be associated with an individual's prior influenza vaccination history.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.