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This paper presents the comparison of the microstructure of the interface zone formed between titanium (Ti Gr. 1) and steel (P265GH+N) in various processing stages—directly after explosive welding versus the annealing state. Transmission electron microscopy technique served as an excellent tool for studies of the sharp interface in-between the waves. Directly after the welding process in this area, a thin layer of the metastable β-Ti (Fe) solid solution was observed. In the next step, two variants of annealing have been employed: ex situ and in situ in TEM, which revealed the complete information on the interface zone transformation. The results have shown that during the annealing at 600°C for 1.5 h, the diffusion of carbon towards titanium caused the formation of titanium carbides with a layered arrangement. Compared to our previous studies, the carbides found here have a hexagonal structure. Furthermore, changes in the dislocation structure were observed, indicating the occurrence of recovery processes. Possible reasons for differences observed in the microstructure of the interface formed due to ex situ and in situ annealing are also discussed. The microstructure observations are accompanied by the microhardness measurements, which showed that the annealing caused a significant reduction in the microhardness values.
The presented research focused on the microstructural characteristics of explosively welded three-layered Ti Grade (Gr) 1/Alloy 400/1.4462 steel clads before and after heat treatment being of large practical potential. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses have shown that both interfaces formed between the plates are continuous and without defects. The in-depth examination was dedicated to the upper Ti Gr 1/Alloy 400 interface, located closer to the explosive material, therefore, subjected to more extreme welding conditions. The presence of cubic phase Ti2Ni, hexagonal phase Ni3Ti, and tetragonal phase (CuxNi1−x)2Ti were confirmed within the melted zones, which slightly widened due to annealing, being an essential step in the manufacturing of these modern materials. Transmission electron microscopy observations in the nano scale confirmed the preliminary chemical composition analyses collected with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in SEM. They additionally revealed the interface zone microstructure transformation due to the annealing. It was evidenced that initially mixed phases in the form of grains, after heat treatment formed irregular bands arranged in the following sequence: Alloy 400/Ni3Ti/(CuxNi1−x)2Ti/Ti2Ni/Ti Gr 1. A clear segregation of Cu and Ni forming two separate layers was also noticed. These diffusion phenomena may influence the strength of the final product, therefore need further studies regarding the prolonged annealing state.
This work presents the microstructure of the cross-section of a newly developed Nb/Inconel 601 weld with particular attention paid to the continuity, morphology of the interface, and the microstructural changes within its vicinity. Both scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy techniques are excellent tools to analyze the microstructure that affects both mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of the obtained product. Grain size examination and their orientation together with the character of grain boundaries by the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique were performed followed by chemical composition determination across the interface with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in SEM. Then, the microstructure observations of the mixed region located at the Nb/Inconel 601 interface using the TEM technique allowed its chemical and phase composition to be revealed.
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