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During visual servoing space activities, the attitude of free-floating space robot may be disturbed due to dynamics coupling between the satellite base and the manipulator. And the disturbance may cause communication interruption between space robot and control center on earth. However, it often happens that the redundancy of manipulator is not enough to fully eliminate this disturbance. In this paper, a method named off-line optimizing visual servoing algorithm is innovatively proposed to minimize the base disturbance during the visual servoing process where the degrees-of-freedom of the manipulator is not enough for a zero-reaction control. Based on the characteristic of visual servoing process and the robot system modeling, the optimal control method is applied to achieve the optimization, and a pose planning method is presented to achieve a second-order continuity of quaternion getting rid of the interruption caused by ambiguity. Then simulations are carried out to verify the method, and the results show that the robot is controlled with optimized results during visual servoing process and the joint trajectories are smooth.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
The effects of the H+. C+. N+, F+, and Ne+ (25–200 keV)ion irradiations have been investigated by means of SEM, room temperature resistance measurement and aqueous degradation test. The room temperature resistance increases exponentially with irradiation doses. At lower dose, the annealing process is dominent, while at higher dose, the resistance increasing process is dominent. A reduction in the thickness induced by ion irradiation has been observed. The aqueous experiment shows that passing current will speed up the degredation and N+ implantations can increase the resistance of the YBCO thin film against attack by water.
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