To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this chapter, the authors trace out the “natural history” of an intensely collaborative multisited comparison, which was distinct from many other comparative research projects because research at each site was carried out by a PhD-level anthropologist who was involved in the scientific development of the project rather than only in the implementation of a centrally directed project. It draws on their experiences with this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, a large, US National Institutes of Health–funded multisite project, to discuss ways in which that comparative research could have been even more powerful, things that future comparative research should strive to avoid, recommended best practices, and what the authors would call “minimum adequate” approaches to comparative ethnography.
Previous research in clinical, community, and school settings has demonstrated positive outcomes for the Secret Agent Society (SAS) social skills training program. This is designed to help children on the autism spectrum become more aware of emotions in themselves and others and to ‘problem-solve’ complex social scenarios. Parents play a key role in the implementation of the SAS program, attending information and support sessions with other parents and providing supervision, rewards, and feedback as their children complete weekly ‘home mission’ assignments. Drawing on data from a school-based evaluation of the SAS program, we examined whether parents’ engagement with these elements of the intervention was linked to the quality of their children’s participation and performance. Sixty-eight 8–14-year-olds (M age = 10.7) with a diagnosis of autism participated in the program. The findings indicated that ratings of parental engagement were positively correlated with children’s competence in completing home missions and with the quality of their contribution during group teaching sessions. However, there was a less consistent relationship between parental engagement and measures of children’s social and emotional skill gains over the course of the program.
In recent years the plethora of ‘weird wonders,’ the vernacular for the apparently extinct major body plans documented in many of the Cambrian Lagerstätten, has been dramatically trimmed. This is because various taxa have been either assigned to known phyla or accommodated in larger monophyletic assemblages. Nevertheless, a number of Cambrian taxa retain their enigmatic status. To this intriguing roster we add Dakorhachis thambus n. gen. n. sp. from the Miaolingian (Guzhangian) Weeks Formation Konservat-Lagerstätte of Utah. Specimens consist of an elongate body that lacks appendages but is apparently segmented. A prominent feeding apparatus consists of a circlet of triangular teeth, while posteriorly there are three distinct skeletal components. D. thambus is interpreted as an ambush predator and may have been partially infaunal. The wider affinities of this new taxon remain conjectural, but it is suggested that it may represent a stem-group member of the Gnathifera, today represented by the gnathostomulids, micrognathozoans, and rotifers and possibly with links to the chaetognaths.
Aging is associated with numerous stressors that negatively impact older adults’ well-being. Resilience improves ability to cope with stressors and can be enhanced in older adults. Senior housing communities are promising settings to deliver positive psychiatry interventions due to rising resident populations and potential impact of delivering interventions directly in the community. However, few intervention studies have been conducted in these communities. We present a pragmatic stepped-wedge trial of a novel psychological group intervention intended to improve resilience among older adults in senior housing communities.
A pragmatic modified stepped-wedge trial design.
Five senior housing communities in three states in the US.
Eighty-nine adults over age 60 years residing in independent living sector of senior housing communities.
Raise Your Resilience, a manualized 1-month group intervention that incorporated savoring, gratitude, and engagement in value-based activities, administered by unlicensed residential staff trained by researchers. There was a 1-month control period and a 3-month post-intervention follow-up.
Validated self-report measures of resilience, perceived stress, well-being, and wisdom collected at months 0 (baseline), 1 (pre-intervention), 2 (post-intervention), and 5 (follow-up).
Treatment adherence and satisfaction were high. Compared to the control period, perceived stress and wisdom improved from pre-intervention to post-intervention, while resilience improved from pre-intervention to follow-up. Effect sizes were small in this sample, which had relatively high baseline resilience. Physical and mental well-being did not improve significantly, and no significant moderators of change in resilience were identified.
This study demonstrates feasibility of conducting pragmatic intervention trials in senior housing communities. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in several measures despite ceiling effects. The study included several features that suggest high potential for its implementation and dissemination across similar communities nationally. Future studies are warranted, particularly in samples with lower baseline resilience or in assisted living facilities.
On the right side, the subclavian artery originates from the innominate (brachiocephalic) artery, which branches into the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. On the left side, it originates directly from the aortic arch. In some individuals, the left subclavian artery may have a common origin with the left common carotid artery.
The subclavian artery courses laterally, passing between the anterior and middle scalene muscles. This is in contrast to the subclavian vein, which is located superficial to the anterior scalene muscle.
The subclavian artery is divided into three parts on the basis of its relationship to the anterior scalene muscle. The first part extends from its origin to the medial border of the anterior scalene muscle, coursing deep to the sternocleidomastoid and the strap muscles. It gives rise to the vertebral, internal mammary (internal thoracic), and thyrocervical arteries. The second part lies deep to the anterior scalene muscle and superficial to the upper and middle trunks of the brachial plexus. Here, it gives rise to the costocervical artery (on the left side, costocervical artery comes off the first part of the subclavian artery). The third part is located lateral to the anterior scalene muscle, and courses over the lower trunk of the brachial plexus, usually giving rise to the dorsal scapular artery, although its branches are not constant.
The subclavian artery continues as the axillary artery, as it passes over the first rib. The external landmark for this transition is the lower border of the middle of the clavicle. The external landmark for the axillary artery is a curved line from the middle of the clavicle to the deltopectoral groove.
The subclavian vein is the continuation of the axillary vein and originates at the level of the outer border of the first rib. It crosses in front of the anterior scalene muscle, and at the medial border of the muscle, it joins the internal jugular vein to form the innominate (brachiocephalic) vein. The left thoracic duct drains into the left subclavian vein at its junction with the left internal jugular vein. The right thoracic duct drains into the junction of the right subclavian vein and right internal jugular vein.
The vagus nerve is in close proximity to the first part of the subclavian artery and it lies medial to the internal mammary artery. On the right side, it crosses in front of the artery and immediately gives off the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which loops behind the subclavian artery and ascends behind the common carotid artery into the tracheoesophageal groove. On the left side, the vagus nerve travels between the common carotid and subclavian arteries and immediately gives rise to the RLN, which loops around the aortic arch and ascends into the tracheoesophageal groove.
The trachea divides into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the sternal angle (T4 level). The right bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical compared to the left. The right bronchus divides into three lobar bronchi, supplying the right upper, middle, and lower lung lobes respectively. The left bronchus divides into two lobar bronchi, supplying the left upper and lower lobes.
The lung has a unique dual blood supply. The pulmonary artery trunk originates from the right ventricle and gives the right and left pulmonary arteries. The right pulmonary artery passes posterior to the aorta and superior vena cava. The left pulmonary artery courses anterior to the left mainstem bronchus. The pulmonary arteries supply deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation directly to alveoli where gas exchange occurs. These vessels are large in diameter, but supply blood in a low pressure system.
The bronchial arteries arise directly from the thoracic aorta. These vessels are smaller in diameter, and supply the trachea, bronchial tree, and visceral pleura.
The venous drainage of the lungs occurs from the pulmonary veins. They originate at the level of the alveoli. There are two pulmonary veins on the right and two on the left. These four veins join at or near their junction with the left atrium usually within the pericardium. These veins carry oxygenated blood back to the heart for distribution to the systemic circulation.
The lung is covered superiorly, anteriorly, and posteriorly by pleura. At its inferior border the investing layers come into contact forming the inferior pulmonary ligament that connects the lower lobe of the lung, from the inferior pulmonary vein to the mediastinum and the medial part of the diaphragm. It serves to retain the lower lung lobe in position.
Lifeboats are essential life-saving equipment for all types of water-going vessels and offshore platforms. Lifeboat simulators have been created specifically for offshore personnel to practice in conditions that are normally too risky for live training. As simulation training is a relatively new alternative, there is a need to assess how training performed with a simulator compares with conventional training. This study was performed to evaluate how skills acquired with different training approaches transferred to an emergency scenario. Over a period of one year, participants received quarterly training in one of three ways: using live boats, computer-based training or a simulator. Following training, participants were evaluated on their ability to launch and manoeuvre a lifeboat in a plausible emergency. The study results suggest a benefit to performing training with realistic lifeboat controls and practicing using representative emergency scenarios. Insights are provided on how training can be modified to increase competence.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) remains a significant public health concern, resulting in excess morbidity, mortality, and costs. Additional insight into the burden of CDI in adults aged <65 years is needed.
A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using data extracted from United States Veterans Health Administration electronic medical records.
Patients aged 18–64 years on January 1, 2011, were followed until incident CDI, death, loss-to-follow-up, or December 31, 2016. CDI was identified by a diagnosis code accompanied by metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin therapy, or positive laboratory test. The clinical setting of CDI onset was defined according to 2017 SHEA-IDSA guidelines.
Of 1,073,900 patients, 10,534 had a CDI during follow-up. The overall incidence rate was 177 CDIs per 100,000 person years, rising steadily from 164 per 100,000 person years in 2011 to 189 per 100,000 person years in 2016. Those with a CDI were slightly older (55 vs 51 years) and sicker, with a higher baseline Charlson comorbidity index score (1.4 vs 0.5) than those without an infection. Nearly half (48%) of all incident CDIs were community associated, and this proportion rose from 41% in 2011 to 56% in 2016.
The findings from this large retrospective study indicate that CDI incidence, driven primarily by increasing community-associated infection, is rising among young and middle-aged adult Veterans with high service-related disability. The increasing burden of community associated CDI in this vulnerable population warrants attention. Future studies quantifying the economic and societal burden of CDI will inform decisions surrounding prevention strategies.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
To describe the body size and weight, and the nutrition and activity behaviours of sexual and gender minority (SGM) students and compare them with those of exclusively opposite-sex-attracted cisgender students. Male and female SGM students were also compared.
Data were from a nationally representative health survey.
Secondary schools in New Zealand, 2012.
A total of 7769 students, 9 % were SGM individuals.
Overall, weight-control behaviours, poor nutrition and inactivity were common and, in many cases, more so for SGM students. Specifically, male SGM students (adjusted OR; 95 % CI) were significantly more likely to have tried to lose weight (1·95; 1·47, 2·59), engage in unhealthy weight control (2·17; 1·48, 3·19), consume fast food/takeaways (2·89; 2·01, 4·15) and be physically inactive (2·54; 1·65, 3·92), and were less likely to participate in a school sports team (0·57; 0·44, 0·75), compared with other males. Female SGM students (adjusted OR; 95 % CI) were significantly more likely to engage in unhealthy weight control (1·58; 1·20, 2·08), be overweight or obese (1·24; 1·01, 1·53) and consume fast food/takeaways (2·19; 1·59, 3·03), and were less likely to participate in a school sports team (0·62; 0·50, 0·76), compared with other females. Generally, female SGM students were more negatively affected than comparable males, except they were less likely to consume fast food/takeaways frequently (adjusted OR; 95 % CI: 0·62; 0·40, 0·96).
SGM students reported increased weight-control behaviours, poor nutrition and inactivity. Professionals, including public health nutritionists, must recognize and help to address the challenges facing sexual and gender minorities.