Anisakid nematodes belonging to the Anisakis simplex complex are highly prevalent in several fish species off the coast of Portugal and are an important zoonotic problem in the Iberian Peninsula. Two reproductively isolated sibling species of the Anisakis simplex complex were identified from Pleuronectiformes inhabiting the Portuguese coast using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Recombinant genotypes corresponding to presumptive Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii hybrids were also detected by this technique, as well as the species Anisakis typica. Although 25 species of Pleuronectiformes were investigated, Anisakis spp. larvae were only found in seven: Arnoglossus imperialis, Arnoglossus laterna, Lepidorhombus boscii, Citharus linguatula, Platichthys flesus, Dicologlossa cuneata and Solea senegalensis. The occurrence of hybrids in relatively sedentary fishes such as the Pleuronectiformes suggests that the Portuguese coast may constitute an area of hybridization and, therefore, is of particular interest for the study of the process of hybridization and speciation for these anisakids.