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The study aimed to determine the geographical diversity in seasonality of major diarrhoeal pathogens among 21 138 patients enrolled between 2010 and 2012 in two urban and two rural sites in Bangladesh under the surveillance system of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Distinct patterns in seasonality were found for rotavirus diarrhoea which peaked in winter across the sites (December and January) and dipped during the rainy season (May) in urban Dhaka, August in Mirpur and July in Matlab, equated by time-series analysis using quasi-Poisson regression model. Significant seasonality for shigellosis was observed in Dhaka and rural Mirzapur. Cholera had robust seasonality in Dhaka and Matlab in the hot and rainy seasons. For enterotoxogenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhoea, clearly defined seasonality was observed in Dhaka (summer). Understanding the seasonality of such pathogens can improve case management with appropriate therapy, allowing policy-makers to identify periods of high disease burden.
The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24–59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2·21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·49–3·27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2·00, 95% CI 1·09–3·67), vomiting (OR 0·19, 95% CI 0·14–0·25), abdominal pain (OR 4·68, 95% CI 3·24–6·77), straining (OR 16·45, 95% CI 11·92–22·69), wasting (OR 1·66, 95% CI 1·15–2·41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6·25, 95% CI 4·20–9·29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.
We present an analysis of three years of precision radial velocity measurements of 160 metal-poor stars observed with Keck/HIRES. We report on variability and long-term velocity trends for each star in our sample. We identify several long-term, low-amplitude radial-velocity variables worthy of follow-up with direct imaging techniques. We place lower limits on the detectable companion mass as a function of orbital period. None of the stars in our sample exhibits radial-velocity variations compatible with the presence of Jovian planets with periods shorter than the survey duration (3 yr). The resulting average frequency of gas giants orbiting metal-poor dwarfs with −2.0≤[Fe/H]≤ −0.6 is fp < 0.67%. By combining our dataset with the Fischer & Valenti (2005) uniform sample, we confirm that the likelihood of a star to harbor a planet more massive than Jupiter within 2 AU is a steeply rising function of the host's metallicity. However, the data for stars with −1.0≤[Fe/H]≤ 0.0 are compatible, in a statistical sense, with a constant occurrence rate fp≃1%. Our results usefully inform theoretical studies of the process of giant planet formation across two orders of magnitude in metallicity.
We summarize the results of two experiments to address important issues related to the correlation between planet frequencies and properties and the metallicity of the hosts. Our results can usefully inform formation, structural, and evolutionary models of gas giant planets.
The moisture content of keratinous materials such as hoof horn is important as the presence of moisture has an inverse relationship on the mechanical properties of hoof horn and may have a subsequent effect on the function of the hoof. Methods previously used to dehydrate samples to calculate the moisture content of hoof horn vary considerably (Hopegood, 2002). Subsequent comparison of results is therefore unreliable. A comparison of different methods of dehydrating hoof horn was therefore carried out to establish a standardised protocol for dehydrating hoof horn to assess its moisture content. The moisture content of donkey hoof horn from normal animals and those with laminitis has not been reported. Maclean (1971) established that the moisture content of cattle suffering from laminitis was significantly higher than normal hooves. The resultant standardised protocol from the first part of this study was then used to compare the moisture content of hoof horn samples taken from horses, donkeys and those donkeys that had suffered from laminitis.
Because of the procedures associated with the deconvolution of the data present in an EXAFS spectrum, the experimental XAFS spectra also include both the edge and XANES regions. It is possible to obtain additional structural and chemical information from the data associated with these regions of the XAFS spectrum and in this work we have re-examined the XAFS spectra for a series of polymer electrolytes. These spectra were originally recorded for EXAFS analysis. The XANES spectra for PEOn:CaBr2 electrolytes confirm that the behaviour of calcium polymer electrolytes appears to be very different from that of other divalent based electrolytes. We have also examined the edge features for PEO8:NiBr2 samples which were subject to different thermal histories and evidence for phase separation is presented.
The five centuries of the 'Abbasid period (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD) were the golden age of Arabic literature. They saw the appearance not only of poetry and belles-lettres (which are covered in a previous volume), but also of an extensive body of writings concerned with subjects ranging from theology and law to history and the natural sciences. This volume of The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature surveys the most important of these writings, including the literature of Sunnism and Shi'ism, Arabic philosophy, Sufism, Islamic law, grammar, lexicography, administration, historiography, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography, alchemy and medicine. It contains separate chapters on six of the greatest scholars of the Middle Ages, as well as on the Arabic literature of the Christians and Jews who lived under the rule of the 'Abbasid caliphate, and includes a study of one of the great cultural movements of the period, the translations from Greek into Arabic.
The five centuries of the ʿAbbasid caliphate in Baghdad saw the flowering of Arabic writing over an extraordinary variety of literary fields, from poetry and humane letters to philosophy, law, history and the natural sciences. The second volume of The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature is devoted to belles-lettres in the ʿAbbasid period; the present volume takes as its province the literature of the scholarly disciplines broadly delineated by “religion, learning and science”.
Arabic scholarship began with the study of the Qurʾān, the Ḥadīth and the various fields of learning which were ancillary to these; but the translations from Greek and other languages which began in the second century after the death of Muhammad and which continued through the third/ninth century greatly extended the horizons of Arabic literature, and the resulting proliferation of learned disciplines led a number of Muslim writers to draw up lists classifying the various “sciences” or fields of learning. These classifications differ in many details, but there was a generally admitted distinction between the “religious sciences” and the “foreign sciences”. The former included Quranic exegesis, Tradition, theology, jurisprudence and all those subjects such as philology and historiography which developed from them. The “foreign sciences” included medicine, the natural sciences, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography, alchemy and mechanics.
In the present volume the first five chapters deal with the literature of theology and religious experience. ʿIlm al-kalām (theology, or defensive apologia) originated with the dissensions in Islam after the battle of Siffin, but it needed an external stimulus to develop fully, and this stimulus was provided by the disputations with Christian apologists and the influence of Greek thought.