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Stress-induced structural and cellular alterations in the hippocampus can contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. The reversal of these alterations may be a mechanism by which antidepressants achieve their therapeutic effect. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of tianeptine on stress-induced structural changes and alterations in cerebral metabolites. To this end, psychosocially stressed male tree shrews were treated with tianeptine. A combination of in vivo and postmortem methods was used to evaluate the antidepressant treatment on the preservation of neuronal plasticity. It was found that all stress-induced effects were prevented by the administration of tianeptine. It is concluded that these findings provide experimental evidence for recent theories that impairment of neuronal viability and neuroplasticity might be important causal factors in mood disorders, suggesting tianeptine as a potential stimulator of neural resilience.
With the aim to characterize the near-wall flow structures and their interaction with large-scale motions in the log-law region, time-resolved planar and volumetric flow field measurements were performed in the near-wall and log-law region of an adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer following a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at a friction Reynolds number
. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of the measurements, it was possible to resolve and identify uniform-momentum zones in the region
and to relate them with well known coherent flow motions near the wall. The space–time results confirm that the turbulent superstructures have a strong impact even on the very near-wall flow motion and also their alternating appearance in time and intensity could be quantified over long time sequences. Using the time record of the velocity field, rare localized separation events appearing in the viscous sublayer were also analysed. By means of volumetric particle tracking velocimetry their three-dimensional topology and dynamics could be resolved. Based on the results, a conceptual model was deduced that explains their rare occurrence, topology and dynamics by means of a complex interaction process between low-momentum turbulent superstructures, near-wall low-speed streaks and tilted longitudinal and spanwise vortices located in the near-wall region.
Results of intervention studies on the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA; C18 : 3n-3) on blood pressure (BP) are conflicting. Discrepancies between studies may be due to differences in study population, as subjects with increased baseline BP levels may be more responsive. Therefore, we examined specifically the effects of ALA on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in (pre-)hypertensive subjects. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel study, fifty-nine overweight and obese adults (forty males and nineteen females) with (pre-)hypertension (mean age of 60 (sd 8) years) received daily 10 g refined cold-pressed flaxseed oil, providing 4·7 g (approximately 2 % of energy) ALA (n 29) or 10 g of high-oleic sunflower oil as control (n 30) for 12 weeks. Compliance was excellent as indicated by vial count and plasma phospholipid fatty-acid composition. Compared with control, the changes of –1·4 mmHg in mean arterial pressure (MAP; 24 h ABP) after flaxseed oil intake (95 % CI –4·8, 2·0 mmHg, P=0·40) of –1·5 mmHg in systolic BP (95 % CI –6·0, 3·0 mmHg, P=0·51) and of –1·4 mmHg in diastolic BP (95 % CI –4·2, 1·4 mmHg, P=0·31) were not statistically significant. Also, no effects were found for office BP and for MAP, systolic BP, and diastolic BP when daytime and night-time BP were analysed separately and for night-time dipping. In conclusion, high intake of ALA, about 3–5 times recommended daily intakes, for 12 weeks does not significantly affect BP in subjects with (pre-)hypertension.
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is doing research and development in the field of megawatt-class radio frequency (RF) sources (gyrotrons) for the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant that will follow ITER. In the focus is the development and verification of the European coaxial-cavity gyrotron technology which shall lead to gyrotrons operating at an RF output power significantly larger than 1 MW CW and at an operating frequency above 200 GHz. A major step into that direction is the final verification of the European 170 GHz 2 MW coaxial-cavity pre-prototype at longer pulses up to 1 s. It bases on the upgrade of an already existing highly modular short-pulse (ms-range) pre-prototype. That pre-prototype has shown a world record output power of 2.2 MW already. This paper summarizes briefly the already achieved experimental results using the short-pulse pre-prototype and discusses in detail the design and manufacturing process of the upgrade of the pre-prototype toward longer pulses up to 1 s.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
In this article we prove that the Weinstein conjecture holds for contact manifolds
is non-orderable in the sense of Eliashberg and Polterovich [Partially ordered groups and geometry of contact transformations, Geom. Funct. Anal. 10 (2000), 1448–1476]. More precisely, we establish a link between orderable and hypertight contact manifolds. In addition, we prove for certain contact manifolds a conjecture by Sandon [A Morse estimate for translated points of contactomorphisms of spheres and projective spaces, Geom. Dedicata 165 (2013), 95–110] on the existence of translated points in the non-degenerate case.
The role of self generated magnetic fields in the transport of a heat wave following a nanosecond laser irradiation of a solid target is investigated. Magnetic fields are expected to localize the electron carrying the heat flux but at the same time are affected in their evolution by the heat flux itself. We performed simultaneous measurements of heat wave propagation velocity within the target and magnetic fields developing on the target surface. These were compared to results obtained by numerical magneto-hydrodynamic modeling, including self-generated B fields. The comparison shows that longitudinal heat flow is overestimated in the simulations. Similarly, but most notably, the radial expansion of the magnetic fields is underestimated by the modeling. The two are likely linked, the more pronounced radial drift of B-fields induces a rotation of heat flux in the radial direction, and corresponding longitudinal heat flux inhibition. This suggests the need for improving present modeling of self-generated magnetic fields evolution in high power laser-matter interaction.
As physical activity may modify the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, we tested for such a gene–environment interaction in a sample of general practice patients aged ⩾75 years.
Data were derived from follow-up waves I–IV of the longitudinal German study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). The Kaplan–Meier survival method was used to estimate dementia- and AD-free survival times. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess individual associations of APOE ε4 and physical activity with risk for dementia and AD, controlling for covariates. We tested for gene–environment interaction by calculating three indices of additive interaction.
Among the randomly selected sample of 6619 patients, 3327 (50.3%) individuals participated in the study at baseline and 2810 (42.5%) at follow-up I. Of the 2492 patients without dementia included at follow-up I, 278 developed dementia (184 AD) over the subsequent follow-up interval of 4.5 years. The presence of the APOE ε4 allele significantly increased and higher physical activity significantly decreased risk for dementia and AD. The co-presence of APOE ε4 with low physical activity was associated with higher risk for dementia and AD and shorter dementia- and AD-free survival time than the presence of APOE ε4 or low physical activity alone. Indices of interaction indicated no significant interaction between low physical activity and the APOE ε4 allele for general dementia risk, but a possible additive interaction for AD risk.
Physical activity even in late life may be effective in reducing conversion to dementia and AD or in delaying the onset of clinical manifestations. APOE ε4 carriers may particularly benefit from increasing physical activity with regard to their risk for AD.
Whether late-onset depression is a risk factor for or a prodrome of dementia remains unclear. We investigated the impact of depressive symptoms and early- v. late-onset depression on subsequent dementia in a cohort of elderly general-practitioner patients (n = 2663, mean age = 81.2 years).
Risk for subsequent dementia was estimated over three follow-ups (each 18 months apart) depending on history of depression, particularly age of depression onset, and current depressive symptoms using proportional hazard models. We also examined the additive prediction of incident dementia by depression beyond cognitive impairment.
An increase of dementia risk for higher age cut-offs of late-onset depression was found. In analyses controlling for age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E4 genotype, we found that very late-onset depression (aged ⩾70 years) and current depressive symptoms separately predicted all-cause dementia. Combined very late-onset depression with current depressive symptoms was specifically predictive for later Alzheimer's disease (AD; adjusted hazard ratio 5.48, 95% confidence interval 2.41–12.46, p < 0.001). This association was still significant after controlling for cognitive measures, but further analyses suggested that it was mediated by subjective memory impairment with worries.
Depression might be a prodrome of AD but not of dementia of other aetiology as very late-onset depression in combination with current depressive symptoms, possibly emerging as a consequence of subjectively perceived worrisome cognitive deterioration, was most predictive. As depression parameters and subjective memory impairment predicted AD independently of objective cognition, clinicians should take this into account.