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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Conformal epitaxy is an epitaxial growth technique capable of yielding low dislocation density III-V films on Silicon. In this technique, the growth of the III-V material occurs parallel to the silicon substrate, from the edge of a previously deposited III-V seed, the vertical growth being stopped by an overhanging capping layer. As an example, conformal GaAs layers on Silicon, presenting dislocation densities below 105cm−2, have been obtained using selective vapor phase epitaxy. These layers have then been used as high quality GaAs on Si substrates for subsequent vertical MBE regrowth of active structures. In this paper, we report on the integration of surface-emitting microcavity LEDs with their silicon drivers using this conformal growth technique. The global technology concept and the design of the active structures are first presented. The compatibility of the conformal growth technique with CMOS technology is then checked: the impact of the integration process on the performances of the drivers is for example quantified. Characterisations of the high crystalline quality of the conformal layers and of the LEDs structures grown on it are then shown. The electro-optical characteristics of the LEDs on Si are finally compared to those of reference LEDs on GaAs substrates in order to prove the efficiency of the integration procedure.
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