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Background: After the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Korea in 2015, the government newly established the additional reimbursement for infection prevention to encourage infection control activities in the hospitals. The new policy was announced in December 2015 and was implemented in September 2016. We evaluated how infection control activities improved in hospitals after the change of government policy in Korea. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF) were conducted in 2013, 2015, and 2017. Using multivariable linear regression model including hospital characteristics, we analyzed the changes in total HHSAF scores according to the survey time. Results: In total, 32 hospitals participated in the survey in 2013, 52 in 2015, and 101 in 2017. The number of inpatient beds per infection control professionals decreased from 324 in 2013 to 303 in 2015 and 179 in 2017. Most hospitals were at intermediate or advanced levels of progress (90.6% in 2013, 86.6% in 2015, and 94.1% in 2017). In a multivariable linear regression model, the total HHSAF scores were significantly associated with hospital teaching status (β coefficient of major teaching hospital, 52.6; 95% CI, 8.9–96.4; P = .018), bed size (β coefficient of 100-bed increase, 5.1; 95% CI, 0.3–9.8; P = .038), and survey time (β coefficient of 2017 survey, 45.1; 95% CI, 19.3–70.9; P = .001). Conclusions: After the national policy implementation, the number of infection control professionals increased, and the promotion of hand hygiene activities was strengthened in Korean hospitals.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of glucose, soya oil or glutamine on jejunal morphology, protein metabolism and protein expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling pathway in jejunal villus or crypt compartment of piglets. Forty-two 21 d-weaned piglets were randomly allotted to one of the three isoenergetic diets formulated with glucose, soya oil or glutamine for 28 d. On day 14 or 28, the proteins in crypt enterocytes were analysed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification and proteins involved in mTORC1 signalling pathway in villus or crypt compartment cells were determined by Western blotting. Our results showed no significant differences (P > 0·05) in jejunal morphology among the three treatments on day 14 or 28. The differentially expressed proteins mainly took part in a few network pathways, including antimicrobial or inflammatory response, cell death and survival, digestive system development and function and carbohydrate metabolism. On day 14 or 28, there were higher protein expression of eukaryotic initiation factor-4E binding protein-1 in jejunal crypt compartment of piglets supplemented with glucose or glutamine compared with soya oil. On day 28, higher protein expression of phosphor-mTOR in crypt compartment was observed in piglets supplemented with glucose compared with the soya oil. In conclusion, the isoenergetic glucose, soya oil or glutamine did not affect the jejunal morphology of piglets; however, they had different effects on the protein metabolism in crypt compartment. Compared with soya oil, glucose or glutamine may be better energy supplies for enterocytes in jejunal crypt compartment.
TlGa1−xSbxS2 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) single crystals were grown using the Bridgman–Stockbarger method. The direct energy gaps of the single crystals were found to be 2.586, 2.459, 2.344, 2.228, 2.119, and 1.987 eV for the composition x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively, at 20 K. The indirect energy gaps were found to be 2.479, 2.357, 2.232, 2.118, 1.983, and 1.871 eV for the composition x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively, at 20 K. The optical energy gaps decreased linearly with increasing composition x. The temperature dependence of the optical energy gaps for each of the single crystals was well fitted with the Varshni equation.
We investigated the photoluminescence as well as the crystal structure and optical energy gaps of the Zn1-xCdxAl2Se4-4xS4x solid solution system based on the Al-related compounds of ZnAl2Se4, ZnAl2S4, CdAl2Se4, and CdAl2S4. The single crystals of the system with 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 were grown by the chemical transport reaction technique. The Zn1-xCdxAl2Se4-4xS4x crystallizes in a defect chalcopyrite structure for a whole composition and has an optical energy gap ranging from 3.525 to 3.577 eV at 13 K. The photoluminescence spectra at 13 K showed a strong emission band in the blue spectral region and a weak broad emission band in the visible region due to donor–acceptor pair recombination. The composition and temperature dependence of these bands were examined in the investigated regions. The simple energy band scheme for the radiative mechanisms of the Zn1-xCdxAl2Se4-4xS4x is proposed on the basis of our experimental results along with photo-induced current transient spectroscopy measurements.
MgxZn1-xSi: Ho3+, MgxZn1-xSe: Er3+, and MgxZn1-xSe: Tm3+ single crystals were grown by the closed-tube sublimation method. The single crystals crystallized into a zincblende structure at the composition x = 0.11 and a wurtzite structure at the composition x = 0.25, 0.32, and 0.41. The trivalent ions (Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+) of the rare-earth elements Ho, Er, and Tm site in Td and C3v symmetries in the single crystals with zincblende and wurtzite structures, respectively. Sharp emission peaks appeared in the photoluminescence spectra of the single crystals. These emission peaks are identified to originate from the radiation recombination between the energy levels of the trivalent ions sited in Td and C3v symmetries.
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