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Thorny lacewings (Rhachiberothidae) are currently distributed only within Africa, whereas they are prevalent in the fossil record of various Cretaceous ambers across the Northern Hemisphere, with a handful of the fossil records from some Eocene European ambers. Four rhachiberothid species in four extinct genera are known from the mid-Cretaceous amber of northern Myanmar. Here, we report further examples of the remarkable palaeodiversity of this group from the same amber deposit, adding the four new fossil genera and seven new species: Acanthoberotha cuspis gen. et sp. nov., Astioberotha falcipes gen. et sp. nov., Stygioberotha siculifera gen. et sp. nov., Uranoberotha chariessa gen. et sp. nov., Creagroparaberotha cuneata sp. nov., Micromantispa galeata sp. nov. and M. spicata sp. nov. Based on a series of well-preserved specimens, we discuss the fine details of the raptorial forelegs and genital segments, which may be important for elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among genera. Our findings reveal an unexpectedly diverse assemblage of thorny lacewings in the Cretaceous System, highlighting the morphologically diverse rhachiberothids in Burmese amber. The discovery of seven additional rhachiberothid species in Myanmar amber suggests the potential for much higher diversity and abundance of the Cretaceous rhachiberothids than previously documented. Furthermore, morphological variation in the raptorial forelegs was found to be extremely diverse among the Burmese amber paraberothines, especially in terms of the size, number and shape of spines (or spine-like setae) on the inner edges of protibia, and the morphological structure of the probasitarsus.
Thiamine deficiency (TD) is recognized in various kinds of disease with associated loss of appetite including cancer. However, it has not been recognized to date in bereaved partners after spousal loss from cancer.
From a series of bereaved partners who lost a spouse to cancer, we report on those who developed TD after bereavement.
Case 1 was a 57-year-old woman who sought consultation at our “bereavement clinic.” Her husband had been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer one year earlier and had died one month previously. At the first visit, she was observed to suffer depression, anxiety, and decreased appetite. Neurological, blood, and biochemical examinations did not reveal any noteworthy findings. She was diagnosed with uncomplicated bereavement. Detailed examination revealed that her appetite had been markedly decreased for approximately five weeks. The diagnosis of TD was supported by her abnormally low serum thiamine level. Case 2 was a bereaved 73-year-old male who had lost his wife to hypopharyngeal cancer one month previously after a five-year illness. He had shown a lack of energy for the month preceding his wife's death, but because there was no improvement after her death, his family recommended he seek consultation at our “bereavement clinic.” He was suffering from major depressive disorder. Detailed examination revealed that his appetite had been decreased for more than two weeks. Again, the diagnosis of TD was supported by his abnormally low serum thiamine level.
Significance of results
These reports demonstrate that there is a possibility that bereaved could develop TD after the loss of a loved one. TD should be considered whenever there is a loss of appetite lasting for more than 2 weeks, and medical staff should pay careful attention to the physical condition of the bereaved to prevent complications because of TD.
Amorphous Ta–O nanotubes (NTs) prepared by anodization in a sulfuric-acid-based solution have been found to contain considerable amounts of extra oxygen and sulfur. Their structural and thermal stability has been studied by combining x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. The amorphous Ta–O, whose composition was estimated to be Ta2O6.6S0.7, crystallizes into orthorhombic β-Ta2O5 at temperatures around 1073 K by an endothermic reaction, at which excess oxygen and impurity sulfur are released. The amorphous NTs were found to be thermally more stable than stoichiometric amorphous Ta2O5, whose crystallization temperature is around 973 K. Excess oxygen and impurity sulfur, which form chemical bonds with Ta atoms in the amorphous solid, must be the origin of the stability. The crystallization follows the out-diffusion of oxygen and sulfur from the solid at temperatures where the mobility of atoms is high enough, indicating that the crystallization is kinetically arrested.
Norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays important roles in the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nortriptyline is a NET-selective tricyclic antidepressant (TCAs) that has been widely used for the treatment of depression. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies have reported over 80% serotonin transporter occupancy with clinical doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but there has been no report of NET occupancy in patients treated with relatively NET-selective antidepressants. In the present study, we used PET and (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 to investigate NET occupancies in the thalamus in 10 patients with major depressive disorder taking various doses of nortriptyline, who were considered to be responders to the treatment. Reference data for the calculation of occupancy were derived from age-matched healthy controls. The result showed approximately 50–70% NET occupancies in the brain as a result of the administration of 75–200 mg/d of nortriptyline. The estimated effective dose (ED50) and concentration (EC50) required to induce 50% occupancy was 65.9 mg/d and 79.8 ng/ml, respectively. Furthermore, as the minimum therapeutic level of plasma nortriptyline for the treatment of depression has been reported to be 70 ng/ml, our data indicate that this plasma nortriptyline concentration corresponds to approximately 50% NET occupancy measured with PET, suggesting that more than 50% of central NET occupancy would be appropriate for the nortriptyline treatment of patients with depression.
The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake caused major disruptions in the provision of health care, including that for patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) device. This study investigated the ability of SDB patients to continue using the nCPAP device in the weeks immediately following the earthquake, whether inability to use the nCPAP device led to symptom relapse, and measures that should be taken to prevent disruptions in nCPAP therapy during future disasters.
If nCPAP devices cannot be used during disasters, SDB patients’ health will be affected negatively.
Within 14 days of the disaster, 1,047 SDB patients completed a questionnaire that collected data regarding ability to use, duration of inability to use, and reasons for inability to use the nCPAP device; symptom relapse while unable to use the nCPAP device; ability to use the nCPAP device use at evacuation sites; and recommendations for improvement of the nCPAP device.
Of the 1,047 patients, 966 (92.3%) had been unable to use the nCPAP device in the days immediately following the earthquake. The most common reason for inability to use the nCPAP device was power failure, followed by anxiety about sleeping at night due to fear of aftershocks, involvement in disaster-relief activities, loss of the nasal CPAP device, and fear of being unable to wake up in case of an emergency. Among the 966 patients, 242 (25.1%) had experienced relapse of symptoms, the most common of which was excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), followed by insomnia, headache, irritability, and chest pain.
Developing strategies for the continuation of nCPAP therapy during disasters is important for providing healthy sleeping environments for SDB patients in emergency situations.
MitoF, NishijimaT, SakuraiS, KizawaT, HosokawaK, TakahashiS, SuwabeA, AkasakaH, KobayashiS. Effects of CPAP Treatment Interruption Due to Disasters: Patients with Sleep-disordered Breathing in the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Area. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):547-555.
Antidepressants used for treatment of depression exert their efficacy by blocking reuptake at serotonin transporters (5-HTT) and/or norepinephrine transporters (NET). Recent studies suggest that serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors that block both 5-HTT and NET have better tolerability than tricyclic antidepressants and may have higher efficacy compared to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies have reported >80% 5-HTT occupancy with clinical doses of antidepressants, but there has been no report of NET occupancy in patients treated with antidepressants. In the present study, we investigated both 5-HTT and NET occupancies by PET using radioligands [11C]DASB and (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2, in six patients, each with major depressive disorder (MDD), using various doses of milnacipran. Our data show that mean 5-HTT occupancy in the thalamus was 33.0% at 50 mg, 38.6% at 100 mg, 60.0% at 150 mg and 61.5% at 200 mg. Mean NET occupancy in the thalamus was 25.3% at 25 mg, 40.0% at 100 mg, 47.3% at 125 mg and 49.9% at 200 mg. Estimated ED50 was 122.5 mg with the dose for 5-HTT and 149.9 mg for NET. Both 5-HTT and NET occupancies were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Both 5-HTT and NET occupancies were about 40% by milnacipran at 100 mg, the dose most commonly administered to MDD patients.
We have developed a new class of proton-conducting organic–inorganic hybrid silicophosphite membranes, produced by ethanol condensation of organically modified alkoxysilanes and anhydrous vinylphosphonic acid under solventless, catalyst-free, low-temperature, one-pot conditions. The membranes synthesized in this study are crack-free, large, and flexible, and they exhibit good thermal stability up to intermediate temperatures (~218 °C). Structural analyses using 29Si and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared measurements revealed that ethanol condensation produced an inorganic alternating copolymer structure, Si–O–P, with a phosphole group, and successive polymerization between vinyl and/or methacryl groups enabled these structures to connect with each other. In this way, it is possible to achieve structure manufacturing of inorganic–organic networks. The proton conductivities of the hybrids are as high as 5.2 × 10−3 S/cm at 85 °C under 80% relative humidity.
The increased proportion of the high-affinity state of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2,high) is assumed to correlate with dopamine hypersensitivity, implying a relationship with psychotic symptoms observed in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. [11C](R)-2-CH3O-N-n-propylnorapomorphine ([11C]MNPA), which has an agonistic property to dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), is expected to bind preferentially to D2,high. The occupancy of dopamine D2Rs by antagonists to receptors has not been investigated using [11C]MNPA. We compared dopamine D2R occupancies by risperidone, an antagonist to receptors, between [11C]MNPA and [11C]raclopride to confirm whether risperidone occupies D2,high and D2,low at almost identical proportions. PET studies were performed on 11 healthy men under resting condition and following oral administration of a single dose of risperidone (0.5–2.0 mg). Striatal receptor occupancy for each radioligand was calculated. The relationship between dose or plasma concentration of risperidone and dopamine D2R occupancy was calculated. Striatal dopamine D2R occupancies measured with [11C]MNPA and [11C]raclopride were 22–65% and 24–69%, respectively. In the striatum, ED50 values measured with [11C]MNPA and [11C]raclopride were 0.98 and 1.03 mg, respectively. The striatal ED50 values as calculated from plasma concentration were 9.15 ng/ml and 8.01 ng/ml, respectively. Almost identical occupancies and ED50 values were observed between the two radioligands, indicating that risperidone bound to D2,high and D2,low at almost identical proportions in a dose-dependent manner.
Inflammatory/immunological process and glial contribution are suggested in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in brains of patients with chronic schizophrenia, which were reported to be located on mitochondria of glial cells, using [11C]DAA1106 with positron emission tomography. Fourteen patients and 14 age- and sex-matched normal controls participated in this study. PET data were analysed by two-tissue compartment model with metabolite-corrected plasma input. Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. There was no significant difference between [11C]DAA1106 binding of the cortical regions of normal controls and patients with schizophrenia, whereas the patients showed a positive correlation between cortical [11C]DAA1106 binding and positive symptom scores. There was also a positive correlation between [11C]DAA1106 binding and duration of illness. Although the correlations need to be interpreted very cautiously, involvement of glial reaction process in the pathophysiology of positive symptoms or progressive change of schizophrenia might be suggested.
We performed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating and wiggle-matching of 2 wood samples from charred trunks of trees (samples A and B) collected from an ignimbrite deposit on the northeastern slope of the Baitoushan Volcano on the border of China and North Korea. The obtained calendar years for the eruption are cal AD 945–960 for sample A and cal AD 859–884 and cal AD 935–963 for sample B in the 2-σ range. These results are unable to determine the precise eruption age. The reason for the difference in reported ages may be due to volcanic gas emission prior to the huge eruption.
The effects of antipsychotic drugs have generally been considered to be mediated by blockade of dopamine D2 receptors. The concept of limbic and cortical selectivity of second-generation antipsychotics, i.e. higher dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in the cerebral cortices than in the striatum, has been suggested to explain their clinical efficacy with lower incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects. In this study, regional distribution of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by risperidone was determined in order to elucidate the limbic and cortical selectivity of second-generation antipsychotics. Striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding at baseline and after oral administration of 2 mg risperidone were measured in ten healthy men by positron emission tomography (PET) using different tracers with different affinity for the receptors, [11C]raclopride and [11C]FLB 457, respectively. Striatal and extrastriatal occupancies of dopamine D2 receptors were calculated for each brain region. Occupancies of dopamine D2 receptors were about 70% and 60% in the striatum and extrastriatum, respectively. A simulation study showed that non-negligible specific binding in the reference region (cerebellum), could cause systemic underestimation of occupancy in [11C]FLB 457 PET studies, indicating that occupancies in both the striatum and extrastriatum may not have differed. Among the extrastriatal regions including limbic and neocortical regions, no significant regional differences in dopamine D2 receptor occupancy were observed. Thus, limbic and cortical selectivity was not observed by one of the second-generation antipsychotics, risperidone.
Previous studies of smoking on dopamine release in humans were investigated only in smokers. Using nicotine gum, we examined the effect of nicotine on dopamine release in smokers and non-smokers and its relation to the degree of nicotine dependence. Smokers and non-smokers participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. They participated in two PET measurements with [11C]raclopride, in which they received either nicotine or placebo. Changes in [11C]raclopride non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) following nicotine administration were quantified. Smokers showed significant decrease in BP in the striatum following nicotine administration, but non-smokers did not show such a decrease. The BPND difference between the two scanning sessions was correlated with the degree of nicotine dependence. The BPND difference might reflect enhanced dopamine release in smokers and the reinforced effect of nicotine. These data suggest the feasibility of our gum method as well as the importance of the degree of dependence in future studies of the nicotine effect on the dopamine system.
To identify risk factors for infection and severe illness due to Chlamydia pneumoniae.
To identify risk factors for infection, we conducted a case-control study among nursing home residents who had onset of symptoms during December 1, 1999, to February 20, 2000. To identify risk factors for severe illness among nursing home residents, we conducted a retrospective cohort study.
A nursing home providing long-term and day care services for elderly patients in Japan.
Fifty-nine residents and 41 staff members of a nursing home.
The attack rates for respiratory illness were 53% (31 of 59) among residents and 22% (9 of 41) among staff. Infection was confirmed in 15 resident and 2 staff case patients by isolation of C. pneumoniae from nasal swab specimens. Fifteen resident case patients developed severe illness (ie, bronchitis, pneumonia, and hypoxia); one case patient died. The median age of resident case patients was 87 years. We could identify neither the source of the outbreak nor significant risk factors for infection and severe illness in residents. However, residents with a higher level of physical activity were more likely to become infected, whereas older residents (aged more than 85 years) and those with a lower level of physical activity were more likely to develop severe illness (P>.05). Contact with residents was a risk factor for infection in staff (relative risk, undefined; P = .04).
C. pneumoniae can cause large outbreaks of infection and severe illness among elderly persons, and its transmission is likely to be enhanced by close contacts among people in nursing homes. Therefore, early detection of an outbreak by means of better surveillance, and subsequent isolation of patients, may be effective control measures.
TEX101, a glycoprotein we recently identified, is primarily characterized as a unique germ-cell-specific marker protein that shows sexually dimorphic expression during mouse gonad development. Based on data obtained from molecular biological as well as immuno-morphological studies, we believe this molecule may play a role in the process underlying germ cell formation. However, many points remain unclear as the molecular characteristics and its physiological functions are far from being completely understood. To clarify the molecular basis of TEX101, we herein report a further biochemical characterization of the molecule using testicular Triton X-100 extracts from mice. Deglycosylation studies using endoglycohydrolases that delete N-linked oligosaccharides (OS) from the molecule show that TEX101 is highly (approximately 47%) N-glycosylated. All potential N-glycosylation sites within TEX101 are glycosylated and most of these sites are occupied by endoglycosidase F2-sensitive biantennary complex type OS units. In addition, an extremely low population among TEX101 possesses only endoglycosidase H-sensitive hybrid type OS units. In studies using phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C against native testicular cells or TEX101 transfectant, the enzyme treatment caused major reduction of the TEX101 expression on the cell, suggesting that TEX101, at least in part, is expressed as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Taken together, these findings will help elucidate the molecular nature of TEX101, a marker molecule that appeared on germ cells during gametogenesis.
Transmission volume holograms recorded in two types of methacrylate-based photopolymer films that include benzyl n-butyl phthalate (BBP) or Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are studied. It is shown that both BBP and PMMA molecules can be uniformly dispersed into methacrylate monomers and that a refractive index modulation as high as ∼0.005 is recorded by optimizing their volume concentrations. Moreover, it is also shown that the additional doping of silica nanoparticles substantially suppresses polymerization shrinkage without increasing optical scattering loss.
The single-electron device (SED), which has quantum dot(s), or island(s) in its core, enables the control of electron motion on the level of an elementary charge. The single-electron pump and turnstile are members of the SED family and enable single-electron transfer synchronized with the gate clock. They have the potential for extremely low error rates of electron transfer and are thus expected to be building-block devices for future information processing and electrical metrology. We have been pursuing the fabrication of Si-based SEDs using CMOS technology with the help of electron-beam lithography and have recently demonstrated a Si single-electron pump and turnstile. They are composed of one Si quantum dot and two tiny MOS gates and have dramatically increased the operation temperatures, which opens up the possibility of the practical use of the pump and turnstile.
Another path to realizing single-electron transfer, which we will discuss here, might be to use a localized state in the Si bandgap instead of quantum dots. The localized states could in principle be donor/acceptor levels or any other states created by crystalline imperfections. They are free from the problem of the critical size control of the quantum dots, which might lead to a new era of single-electronics in combination with the rapidly developing research field of “dopant engineering”.
c-axis-oriented epitaxial SrBi2Ta2O9 ultra-thin films were grown by pulse-gas-introduced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (pulsed-MOCVD) on (100)SrTiO3 single crystal substrates with atomic scale step structure and their growth behavior was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Minimum growth unit was found to be “ghalf-unit-cell” of SrBi2Ta2O9. Height of steps and width of terraces observed at SrBi2Ta2O9 film surface were in good agreement with those at SrTiO3 substrate surface. This shape transfer was induced by lattice displacement of SrBi2Ta2O9 along c-direction formed at atomic step on SrTiO3 substrate. In-plane growth of half-unit-cell SrBi2Ta2O9 2D-islands striding across the step walls was observed. It was considered to be a special phenomenon for c-axis-oriented films of layer-structured compounds due to their large crystal anisotropy and/or several times larger half-unit-cell height than single step one of SrTiO3.
Temperature dependency of the dielectric property of c-axis-oriented SrBi4Ti4O15 films was investigated in a temperature range from 80 to 400 K. c-axis-oriented epitaxial films with the film thickness of 30 and 140 nm were grown on (100)cSrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Increasing lattice distortions along the a- and c-axes with decreasing film thickness was ascertained by XRD reciprocal space mapping. However, capacitance change normalized by the capacitance data at 300 K for with temperature was independent of the film thickness; it increased from 80 to 230 K and contrary decreased with increasing the temperature. Especially, the temperature coefficient of capacitance from 230 to 330 K was almost the same. It indicates that dielectric characteristics of these films for the temperature are independent of the film thickness in the actual use. Moreover, the same mesurement for the 120 nm-thick fiber-textured c-axis-oriented SrBi4Ti4O15 film deposited on the (100)cLaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/SiO2/(100)Si substrate was also investigated. Resultant capacitance change with the temperature was basically the same with that of the epitaxial one, even though the temperature at maximum capacitance value was slightly shifted to lower temperature of 200 K. These data suggest that of capacitance change with the temperature was almost independent of the film thickness and the in-plane orientation.
Hafnium oxide films were deposited on silicon substrates at deposition temperatures ranging from 190 to 500 °C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using an amide precursor, Hf[N(C2H5)2]4, and O2 as source materials. The effect of deposition temperature on the deposition characteristics and electrical properties of the resultant films were investigated. Reaction-limited deposition of hafnium oxide films occurred at deposition temperatures under 380 °C. Concentration of residues, such as carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen, monotonously decreased with increasing deposition temperature, with nitrogen being the most thermally susceptible. However, surface roughness reached a minimum value at 400 °C. Amorphous films were obtained for deposition temperatures up to 450 °C, but obviously became crystallized at 500 °C. Accumulation capacitance increased with increasing deposition temperature but saturated above 400 °C. Moreover, postdeposition annealing at 800 °C caused no obvious degradation in the electrical properties of the film deposited at 400 °C.