The European Union stands for the successful public ordering of “Europe.” Its goal is to shape and organize this political and economic area through law, a project involving societies of different mentalities, western democracies, old and young countries in transition, and former Great Powers. That might be ambitious enough, but pressure from outside the Union is also increasing. Alternative concepts campaign strongly to win supporters. The Union's integration agenda is plagued by obvious economic, financial, and social problems. A dissenting spirit has emerged around strongly held convictions concerning what has caused the problems and who should be held responsible. It is a dissenting spirit that, following the Brexit-referendum 23 June 2016, will have significant consequences. Now we have the first withdrawal of a Member State from the European Union.