To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We used data from two population-based longitudinal studies to estimate time of onset and rate of accelerated decline across cognitive domains before dementia diagnosis. The H70 includes an age-homogeneous sample (127 cases and 255 non-cases) initially assessed at age 70 with 12 follow-ups over 30 years. The Kungsholmen Project (KP) includes an age-heterogeneous sample (279 cases and 562 non-cases), with an average age of 82 years at initial assessment, and 4 follow-ups spanning 13 years. We fit mixed linear models to the data and determined placement of change points by a profile likelihood method. Results demonstrated onset of accelerated decline for fluid (speed, memory) versus crystallized (verbal, clock reading) abilities occurring approximately 10 and 5 years before diagnosis, respectively. Although decline before change points was greater for fluid abilities, acceleration was more pronounced for crystallized abilities after the change points. This suggests that onset and rate of acceleration vary systematically along the fluid-crystallized ability continuum. There is early onset in fluid abilities, but these changes are difficult to detect due to substantial age-related decline. Onset occurred later and acceleration was greater in crystallized abilities, suggesting that those markers may provide more valid identification of cases in later stages of the prodromal phase. (JINS, 2011, 17, 000–000)
We investigated whether (1) cognitive deficits are present among
persons who will be diagnosed with vascular dementia (VaD) 3 years
later, and (2) the pattern of such deficits is similar to that observed
in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). The VaD diagnosis was a
diagnosis of post-stroke dementia. Population-based samples of 15
incident VaD cases, 43 incident AD cases, and 149 normal controls were
compared on tests of episodic and short-term memory, verbal fluency,
and visuospatial skill. Both dementia groups showed preclinical
impairment relative controls on tasks assessing episodic memory 3 years
before diagnosis, and there were no differences between these groups on
any cognitive measure. The existence of a preclinical phase in the
present VaD cases suggests that circulatory disturbance may affect
cognitive performance before the occurrence of stroke that leads to
clinical VaD. These results extend previous findings of similar
patterns of cognitive deficits in the early clinical phases of AD and
VaD to the preclinical phases of these diseases. (JINS, 2004,
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.