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Tackling structural geology problems today requires a quantitative understanding of the underlying physical principles, and the ability to apply mathematical models to deformation processes within the Earth. Accessible yet rigorous, this unique textbook demonstrates how to approach structural geology quantitatively using calculus and mechanics, and prepares students to interface with professional geophysicists and engineers who appreciate and utilize the same tools and computational methods to solve multidisciplinary problems. Clearly explained methods are used throughout the book to quantify field data, set up mathematical models for the formation of structures, and compare model results to field observations. An extensive online package of coordinated laboratory exercises enables students to consolidate their learning and put it into practice by analyzing structural data and building insightful models. Designed for single-semester undergraduate courses, this pioneering text prepares students for graduates studies and careers as professional geoscientists.
Ground ice is one of the most important and dynamic geologic components of permafrost; however, few studies have investigated the distribution and origin of ground ice in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. In this study, ice-bearing permafrost cores were collected from 18 sites in University Valley, a small hanging glacial valley in the Quartermain Mountains. Ground ice was found to be ubiquitous in the upper 2 m of permafrost soils, with excess ice contents reaching 93%, but ground ice conditions were not homogeneous. Ground ice content was variable within polygons and along the valley floor, decreasing in the centres of polygons and increasing in the shoulders of polygons towards the mouth of the valley. Ground ice also had different origins: vapour deposition, freezing of partially evaporated snow meltwater and buried glacier ice. The variability in the distribution and origin of ground ice can be attributed to ground surface temperature and moisture conditions, which separate the valley into distinct zones. Ground ice of vapour-deposition origin was predominantly situated in perennially cryotic zones, whereas ground ice formed by the freezing of evaporated snow meltwater was predominantly found in seasonally non-cryotic zones.
Stonehenge is a site that continues to yield surprises. Excavation in 2009 added a new and unexpected feature: a smaller, dismantled stone circle on the banks of the River Avon, connected to Stonehenge itself by the Avenue. This new structure has been labelled ‘Bluestonehenge’ from the evidence that it once held a circle of bluestones that were later removed to Stonehenge. Investigation of the Avenue closer to Stonehenge revealed deep periglacial fissures within it. Their alignment on Stonehenge's solstitial axis (midwinter sunset–midsummer sunrise) raises questions about the early origins of this ritual landscape.
The study of variable stars has played a central role in astronomy for over 400 years, and more so in the present than at any time in history. Stars, especially variable stars, are astrophysical laboratories for understanding physical processes in the universe. Stars represent the fundamental components of stellar systems, galaxies and the universe.
Major ice loss has recently been observed along coastal outlet glaciers of the West Antarctic ice sheet, mainly due to increased melting below the ice shelves. However, the behavior of this marine ice sheet is poorly understood, leading to significant shortcomings in ice-sheet models attempting to predict future sea-level rise. The stability of a marine ice sheet is controlled by the dynamics at the grounding line, the boundary between the grounded ice stream and the floating ice shelf. One of the largest contributors to current sea-level rise is the fast-flowing Thwaites Glacier, which flows into the Amundsen Sea. Here we use an ice-stream/ice-shelf model and perform a number of experiments along a central flowline to analyze the sensitivity of its grounding line on centennial timescales. In the absence of width and buttressing effects, we find that the grounding line retreats by ˜300 km in 200 years from the present day (rate of 1.5 km a–1). With variable glacier width implemented in the model, flow convergence slows the retreat of Thwaites grounding line at 0.3–1.2 km a–1. The parameterization of ice-shelf buttressing according to different observed scenarios further reduces the glacier retreat and can even lead to a slight advance in the most buttressed case.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding-line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). Perturbation experiments specifying spatial variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Steady-state grounding-line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Resolving grounding lines requires inclusion of membrane stresses, a sufficiently small grid size (<500 m), or subgrid interpolation of the grounding line. The latter still requires nominal grid sizes of <5 km. For larger grid spacings, appropriate parameterizations for ice flux may be imposed at the grounding line, but the short-time transient behaviour is then incorrect and different from models that do not incorporate grounding-line parameterizations. The numerical error associated with predicting grounding-line motion can be reduced significantly below the errors associated with parameter ignorance and uncertainties in future scenarios.
As research on variable stars continues at an ever growing pace, this report can only give a selection of research highlights from the past three years, with a rigorously abbreviated bibliography. The past triennium has been dominated by results of the CoRoT (Astronomy & Astrophysics 2009) and Kepler (Gilliland et al. 2010) space missions, stemming from their unprecedented photometric accuracies and large time bases.
Over the last two decades there has been a notable increase in the number of corporate governance codes and principles, as well as a range of improvements in structures and mechanisms. Despite this, corporate governance failed to prevent a widespread default of fiduciary duties of corporate boards and managerial responsibilities in the finance industry, which contributed to the 2007–10 global financial crisis. This book brings together leading scholars from North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East to provide fresh and critical analytical insights on the systemic failures of corporate governance linked to the global financial crisis. Contributors draw from a range of disciplines to demonstrate the severe limitations of the dominant corporate governance framework and its associated market-oriented approach. They provide suggestions on how the governance problems could be tackled to prevent or mitigate any future financial crisis and explore new directions for post-crisis corporate governance research and reforms.
The five chapters in Part I explore the failures of corporate governance that contributed to the global financial crisis, with a focus on examining the limitations of the market-oriented approach to corporate governance, which in a broad sense is characterized by deregulation, self-regulation, the market for corporate control and other market discipline mechanisms. Thomas Clarke begins by examining the specifically corporate governance causes of the global financial crisis. He identifies the origins of the crisis in the enthusiasm for deregulation of financial institutions and markets, resulting in the rapid growth of securitization. The huge explosion of global derivatives set the context in which risk management and corporate governance were abandoned by major financial institutions. The rating agencies and executive incentives played roles in encouraging rather than managing risk. He suggests that international efforts to coordinate a regulatory response to the crisis should be considered.
The contributions in this section concentrate on examining the failure of the internal governance system in the financial crisis and exploring how we may address the problems with the role of institutional shareholders, board effectiveness, internal control and risk management. Robert A. G. Monks starts the section with a focus on the complex and conflicting role of institutional shareholders, which has caused the systemic dysfunction of shareholders' rights and responsibilities to monitor the corporation. While there is no genuine commitment to an ownership-based governance system at present, he suggests two main policy initiatives to tackle this issue: the first is enabling effective shareholder engagement in corporate governance through explicit legislation and commitment to enforcement by all branches of government, and the second is encouraging shareholder activism by arrangement for financing ‘activism’ either as an appropriate corporate expense or as a designated portion of the investment management fees.
The contributions in the final part explore and point to new directions for corporate governance research and reforms as a post-crisis agenda. Peer Zumbansen begins by questioning the current functional and ahistorical approach in comparative law and corporate governance research, which is more interested in exploring and designing regulatory responses towards the quick ‘fixing’ of the system failures, without a fundamental understanding of the changing, evolving and increasingly complex nature of the business corporation and its regulatory environment. Examining the evolution of European capital market law and corporate governance harmonization, he recognizes the increasingly multilevel and trans-territorialized norm production in corporate governance as an ephemeral ‘double movement’: the attempted liberation of the national regulatory constraints as required by business globalization on the one side, and the inevitably embedded nature of corporate norms in distinct socio-economic cultures and historically grown legal and institutional frameworks on the other side. Zumbansen argues that the rapid developments of globalization of markets, information technology, knowledge economy and the ‘financialization’ of the corporation have opened up regulatory spaces and transformed formal rule creation in politically embedded state legal systems towards an emerging system of decentralized and specialized transnational regulatory regimes that unfolds in a web of hard and soft laws, which blur the regulatory boundaries between national and international, public and private, formal and informal. This phenomenon is what he calls ‘transnational legal pluralism’, the new embeddedness of the firm.