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Authentic learning is an approach to teaching where the learning is embedded in a real world context, in real situations or simulations, and offers students opportunities for problem solving challenges much like they will encounter in real life. This paper discusses and reflects upon the development a course designed to teach Socially Responsible Design approaches, methods and tools to Product Design Engineering students using global projects. Our research question was to investigate if this Socially Responsible Design course, it's structure, delivery, learning activities and assessments combined to deliver an authentic learning experience. Through informal interviews with staff, review of student reflections, review of university student feedback comments and consideration of final outcomes, all within the framework of Herrington and Oliver's nine elements of authentic learning, we found that this course did provide an authentic learning experience for many reasons. This study offers academics a frame work for reviewing existing and future courses with a view to creating or enhancing authentic learning experiences using project based learning
Volume 34 of Arthurian Literature presents essays that revisit the familiar and introduce the unfamiliar, ranging from Chrétien's Erec et Enide, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Malory to a hitherto unpublished Middle English poem on Arthur's drawing of the sword from the stone and a little-known Irish Arthurian text, plus a re-evaluation of the cross supposedly found in Arthur's grave at Glastonbury.
Rebecca Newby's examination of the ending of Chrétien's Erec et Enide constitutes a case study in which she explores the extent to which Chrétien's endings conform to medieval theories of poetic composition, with an eye to discovering whether ‘they do in fact contain a nucleus of poetic truth or not’. She studies the structure of Chrétien's poem, paying special attention to endings – both ‘illusory’ and ‘actual’ – and argues that Erec and Enide are also ‘symbolic figures’, or ‘allegorical apotheoses of chivalric matière and beautiful poetic, form respectively’. Neil Cartlidge asks several questions of the opening frame of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, most notably regarding the identity of the knight who is said by the narrator to have committed an act of treason. Can he be identified? The poem's earliest editors decided on either Aeneas or Antenor, but Cartlidge argues for a new approach to this question, and comes to the striking conclusion that the person who best fits the profile within the context of the Fall of Troy narrative is in fact Paris. Nicole Clifton reads Sir Gawain's deathbed scene in Malory's Morte Darthur, offering an answer to the question of how Gawain knows the exact hour of his death. His prediction, according to Clifton, is neither prophetic nor symbolic, as other critics have argued, but simply a matter of factual observation. Furthermore, she argues that Arthur's subsequent dream of Gawain need not necessarily amount to prophecy on Gawain's part either, as some would have it, but has instead a pragmatic explanation as well. Clifton concludes that such passages point to Malory being ‘a hard-headed knight-prisoner whose real-life experience inflects his reading of assorted French books’, rather than ‘a nostalgic writer in love with “olde romaunce” ’.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
Priacanthids are a small family of percomorph fishes comprising fewer than 20 extant species currently assigned to four genera. One of these, Pristigenys, was established by Louis Agassiz (1835) to include the Eocene species Pristigenys substriata from Monte Bolca, and is usually regarded as a subjective senior synonym of Pseudopriacanthus. Consequently, Pristigenys currently comprises five extant species plus the fossil Pristigenys substriata. The osteology of the type species of this genus, however, is poorly known, and this makes it difficult to provide an adequate comprehensive definition of the taxonomy of the whole family. Pristigenys substriata is redescribed in detail based on five well-preserved articulated skeletons. Pristigenys substriata can be easily distinguished from other priacanthids based on its unique combination of characters. Morphological analysis of the fossil specimens reveals that there is substantial evidence to justify recognition of both Pristigenys and Pseudopriacanthus as valid genera, with extant species previously assigned to Pristigenys now referred to Pseudopriacanthus. Within the Priacanthidae, Pristigenys and Pseudopriacanthus form sister taxa and this pair can be considered as the sister-group to all remaining extant priacanthid genera (Cookeolus + [Heteropriacanthus+Priacanthus]).
Caregiver satisfaction and experience surveys help health professionals to understand, measure, and improve the quality of care provided for patients and their families.
Our aim was to explore caregiver perceptions of the care received from Australian specialist palliative care services.
Caregivers of patients receiving palliative care in services registered with Australia's Palliative Care Outcomes Collaboration were invited to participate in a caregiver survey. The survey included the FAMCARE–2 and four items from the Ongoing Needs Identification: Caregiver Profile questionnaire.
Surveys were completed by 1,592 caregivers from 49 services. Most respondents reported high satisfaction and positive experiences. Caregivers receiving care from community-based palliative care teams were less satisfied with the management of physical symptoms and comfort (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI95%] = 0.14, 0.59), with patient psychological care (OR = 0.56; CI95% = 0.32, 0.98), and with family support (OR = 0.52; CI95% = 0.35, 0.77) than caregivers of patients in an inpatient setting. If aged over 60 years, caregivers were less likely to have their information needs met regarding available support services (OR = 0.98; CI95% = 0.97, 0.98) and carer payments (OR = 0.99; CI95% = 0.98, 1.00). Also, caregivers were less likely to receive adequate information about carer payments if located in an outer regional area (OR = 0.41; CI95% = 0.25, 0.64). With practical training, caregivers receiving care from community services reported inadequate information provision to support them in caring for patients (OR = 0.60; CI95% = 0.45, 0.81).
Significance of Results:
While our study identified caregivers as having positive and satisfactory experiences across all domains of care, there is room for improvement in the delivery of palliative care across symptom management, as well as patient and caregiver support, especially in community settings. Caregiver surveys can facilitate the identification and evaluation of both patients' and caregivers' experiences, satisfaction, distress, and unmet needs.
A wide range of Arthurian material is discussed here, reflecting its diversity, and enduring vitality. Geoffrey of Monmouth's best-selling Historia regum Britannie is discussed in the context of Geoffrey's reception in Wales and the relationship between Latin and Welsh literary culture. Two essays deal with the Middle English Ywain and Gawain: the first offers a comparative study of the Middle English poem alongside Chrétien's Yvain and the Welsh Owein, while the second considers Ywain and Gawain with the Alliterative Morte Arthure in their northern English cultural and political context, the world of the Percys and the Nevilles. It is followed by a discussion of Edward III's recuperation of his abandoned Order of the Round Table, which offers an intriguing explanation for this reversal in the context of Edward's victory over the French at Poitiers. The final essay is a comparison of fifteenth- and twentieth-century portrayals of Camelot in Malory and T.H. White, as both idea and locale, and a centre of hearsay and gossip. The volume is completed with a unique and little-known medieval Greek Arthurian poem, presented in facing-page edition and modern English translation.
Elizabeth Archibald is Professor of English Studies at Durham University, and Principal of St Cuthbert's Society; David F. Johnson is Professor of English at Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Contributors: Christopher Berard, Louis J. Boyle, Thomas H. Crofts, Ralph Hanna, Georgia Lynn Henley, Erich Poppe
This volume of Arthurian Literature ranges from the reception of Geoffrey of Monmouth in Wales to the Camelot of T. H. White. Georgia Henley discusses Latin literary culture in medieval Wales, evaluating the intellectual and literary context in which Geoffrey of Monmouth's seminal Historia regum Britanniae was received. She makes the case for discarding the binary distinction of ‘Welsh vs Latin’ in favour of a view of medieval Wales as a multilingual culture in which Latin and Welsh existed side-by-side and the classical tradition had a significant influence on Welsh literature.
We are pleased to be able to publish a revised version of Prof. Erich Poppe's 2016 O'Donnell Lecture in Celtic Studies, in which he shines a bright comparative light (in terms of both plot and lexis) on Chrétien's Ivain, the Middle English Ywain and Gawain and the Middle Welsh Owein, otherwise known as Chwedyl Iarlles y Ffynnawn (The Tale of the Lady of the Well / Countess of the Spring). In his reading of these poems, Poppe effectively demonstrates Peter Clemoes’ axiom that to read ‘Medieval Welsh literature alongside that of Middle English’ is to recognize how great a debt English literature owes to the Celtic tradition for its Arthurian inspirations.
Christopher Berard returns to the subject of Edward III's abandoned Order of the Round Table to argue that, while Edward's ‘un-Arthurian’ tactics at Crécy made his association with the legendary king problematic, his victory at Poitiers and the capture of the flower of French knighthood – and of Jean II of France himself – rendered that association apt once more. Portraying himself as an Arthurian ‘King of Kings’ enabled Edward to negotiate a treaty with, and seek ransom for, the French king without undermining his own claim to that throne.
Ralph Hanna considers Ywain and Gawain and the Alliterative Morte Arthure in the cultural and political context of the turbulent history of the borders and of two great northern families, the Percys and the Nevilles. In spite of the popular image of the ‘uncouth / violent North’, he argues that northern romances diverge from the popular insular pattern of usurpation, exile and return, focusing instead on more domestic themes and on ‘the failure of mere martial prowess to offer meaningful achievement’. He sees Ywain and Gawain as a response to criticism of romance in texts such as Cursor mundi, stressing the importance of both time and ‘trowth’.