In Chapter 7, section 7.4 we learnt the basics of participles:
Luke 18.22: ἀκουσας δε ὁ Ἰησους εἰπεν αὐτῳ Ἐτι ἑν σοι λειπει
– having heard Jesus said to him, ‘One thing still remains for you…’
– when Jesus heard (this) he said to him, ‘You still lack one thing…’
ἀκουσας is a participle from ἀκουω. It agrees with ὀ Ἰησους (nom. masc. sing.), which tells us that it is Jesus who is doing the hearing. It is in the Aorist to convey the ‘sequence’ meaning (present would be ‘simultaneous’), i.e the action in the participle is happening before that in the main verb: first Jesus hears, then he speaks.
Luke 7.9: ἀκουσας δε ταυτα ὁ Ἰησους ἐθαυμασεν αὐτον.
– when he heard these things Jesus was amazed at him.
Once again, ἀκουσας is a participle, but this time it has its own object ταυτα – these things.
Thus the participle has some of the features of a verb, and some of an adjective (grammarians call it a ‘verbal adjective’).
Up to now, we have only dealt with participles that are in the nominative – qualifying the subject. However, participles can qualify any noun.
Participles must agree with the noun they qualify in gender, case and number
Participles have a tense (Present or Aorist) and may have an object